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TYPOGRAPHY (i.e. writing by types)

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Originally appearing in Volume V27, Page 513 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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TYPOGRAPHY (i.e. writing by types) is the general term for the art of printing movable (cast-metal) types on paper, vellum, &c. It is distinct from writing, and also from wood-engraving or xylography, which is the art of cutting figures, letters, words, &c., on blocks of wood and taking impressions from such blocks by means of ink, or any other fluid coloured substance, on paper or vellum. I.—HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY Although the art of writing and that of block-printing both differ widely from printing with movable metal types, yet this last process has apparently been such a gradual transition from block-printing,' and block-printing in its turn such a natural outcome of the many trials that were probably made to produce pictures, books, &c., in, some more expeditious manner than could be done with handwriting, that a cursory glance at these two processes will not seem out of place, especially as a discussion on the origin and progress of typography could hardly be under-stood without knowing the state of the literary development at the time that printing appeared. The art of printing, i.e. of impressing (by means of certain forms and. colours) figures, pictures, letters, words, lines, whole pages, &c., on other objects, as also the First art of engraving, which is inseparably connected attempts at with printing, existed long before the 15th cen- 1'''in""g• tury. Not to go back to remoter essays, there is reason to suppose that medieval kings and princes (among others William ' We do not deal here with copperplate engraving (chalcography), nor with the question, raised by some authors, whether this art preceded that of wood-engraving (xylography), or vice versa. The earliest known date of the former is 1446 on the small engravings of " the Passion " in the Berlin Royal Print Room, whereas the earliest known date of wood-engraving is 1418 (on the Brussels Mary engraving). Both arts were naturally dependent upon MSS. for the forms of their letters, but as to the question of transition from the art of writing to that of typography, xylography alone can be regarded as the intervening and connecting link between those two arts, and there are good reasons for assuming that the inventor of printing with movable types was a xylographer (see below). the Conqueror) had their monograms cut on blocks of wood or metal in order to impress them on their charters. Such impressions from stamps are found instead of seals on charters of the 15th century. Manuscripts, even of the 12th century, show initials which, on account of their uniformity, are believed to have been impressed by means of stamps or dies.' Before the invention of printing, say about 1436, bookbinders are known to have impressed names or legends or other inscriptions on their bindings in two ways: (I) by means of single, insulated letters engraved reversely downwards into a stamp of brass, whereby the letters appeared en relief on the leather or parchment of the binding; (2) by letters engraved reversely en relief on the brass stamp, whereby the letters sank into the binding. For this reason the term impressor, applied afterwards to the " printer," was, in the first instance, applied to the binder, whereas ligator was the proper word for him (see F. Falk, Per Stempeldruck, in " Festschrift," 1900, p. 93 sqq.; Zedler, Gutenberg-Forschungen, 19o1, p. 6). But the idea of " multiplying " representations from one engraved plate or block or stamp, or other form, was unknown to the ancients, whereas it is predominant in what we call the art of block-printing, and especially in that of typography, in 'which the same types can be used again and again. Block-printing and printing with movable types seem to have been practised in China and Japan long before they were known in East Asiatic Europe. It is said that in the year 175 the text of Printing, the-Chinese classics was cut upon tablets, and that impressions were taken of them, some of which are supposed to be still in existence. Printing from wooden blocks can be traced as far back as the 6th century, when the founder of the Suy dynasty is said to have had the remains of the classical books engraved on wood, though it was not until the loth century that printed books became common. In Japan the earliest example of block-printing dates from the period 764–770, when the empress Shiyau-toku, in pursuance of a vow, had a million small wooden toy pagodas made for distribution among the Buddhist temples and monasteries, each of which was to contain a dharani out of the Buddhist Scriptures, entitled " Vimala nirbhasa S6tra," printed on a slip of paper about 18 in. in length and 2 in. in width, which was rolled up and deposited in the body of the pagoda under the spire. In a journal of the period, under the year 987, the expression " printed book "(suri-hon)is applied to a copy of the Buddhist canon brought back from China by a Buddhist priest. This must have been a Chinese edition; but the use of the term implies that printed books were already known in Japan. It is said that the Chinese printed with movable types (of clay) from the middle of the tlth century. The authorities of the British Museum exhibit as the earliest instance of Korean books printed with movable types a work printed in 1337. To the Koreans is attributed the invention of copper types in the beginning of the 15th century; and an inspection of books bearing dates of that period seems to show that they used such types, even if they did not invent them.' From such evidence as we have, it would seem that Europe is not indebted to the Chinese or Japanese for the'art of block-printing, nor for that of printing with movable types. In Europe, as late as the second half of the 14th century, every book and every public and private document was MS. Period. written by hand; all figures and pictures, even playing cards and images of saints, were drawn with the pen or painted with a brush. In the 13th century there already existed a kind of book trade. The organization of universities as well as that of large ecclesiastical establishments was at that time incomplete, especially in Italy, France and Germany, without a staff of scribes and transcribers (scriptores), illuminators, lenders, sellers and custodians of books (stationarii librorum, librarii), and pergamenarii, i.e. persons who prepared and sold the vellum or parchment required for books and documents. The books supplied were for the most part theological, legal and educational, and are calculated to have amounted to above one hundred different works. As no book or document was approved unless it had some ornamented and illuminated 'Passavant, Le Peintre-Graveur, i. 18 (Leipzig, 186o–1864) ; John Jackson, Wood Engraving .(London, 1839) ; Bruno Bucher, Gesell. der techn. Kiinste, I. p. 362 seq. 2 See Ern. Satow, " On the Early History of Printing in Japan," in Trans. Asiat. Soc. of Japan, x. 48 seq.; and Stan. Julien, " Documents sur''art d'imprimer," &c., in Journ. Asiat., 4m ser., voL ix. p. 505.initials or capital letters, there was no want of illuminators. The workmen scribes and transcribers were, perhaps without exception, calligraphers, and the illuminators for the most part artists. . Beautifully written and richly illuminated manuscripts on vellum became objects of luxury which were treasured by princes and people of distinction. Burgundy of the 15th century, with its rich literature, its wealthy towns, its love for art and its school of painting, was in this respect the centre of Europe, and the libraries of its dukes at Brussels, Bruges, Antwerp, Ghent, &c., contained more than three thousand beautifully illuminated MSS. In speaking of the writing of the manuscripts of the 15th and preceding centuries it is essential to distinguish Classes of in each country between at least four different writing. classes of writing, two of which must be again subdivided into two classes. r. The book hand, that is, the ordinary writing of theological, legal and devotional books, used by the official transcribers of the universities and churches, who had received a more or less learned education, and consequently wrote or transcribed books with a certain pretence.of understanding them and of being able to write with greater rapidity than the ordinary calligrapher. Hence they produced two kinds of writing: (a) the current or cursive book hand, of which several illustrations are given in Wilh. Schum, Exempla Codicum Amplon. Erfurtensium; the volumes of the (London) Palaeogr. Society, &c. Quite distinct from this current writing, and much clearer and more distinct, is (b) the upright or set book hand, which was employed not only by writers who worked for universities and churches, but also by persons who may be presumed to have worked in large tides and commercial towns for schools and the people in general without university connexion. (2) In the church hand (Gothic or black letter) were produced transcripts of the Bible, missals, psalters and other works intended for use in churches and private places of worship and devotion. This writing we may again subdivide into two classes: (a) the ornamental or calligraphic writing; toundexclusivelyin books intended for use in churches or for the private use of wealthy and distinguished persons, and (b) the ordinary upright or set church hand, employed for less ornamental and less expensive books. (3) The letter hand may be said to be intermediate between the set literary book hand and the set literary church hand, and to differ but little from either. It was employed in all public documents of the nature of a letter. (4) The court or charter hand was used for charters, title-deeds, papal bulls, &c.' These different kinds of writing served again, in the first instance, as models for cutting the inscriptions and explanatory texts that were intended to illustrate and explain the figures in blockbooks, and afterwards as models for the types used in the printing of books and documents. Dypold Laber (Lauber), a teacher and transcriber at Hagenau in Germany, is known to have carried on a busy trade in manuscripts about the time of the invention of printing. His prospectuses' in handwriting of the middle of the 15th 151b century announce that whatever books people wish B y ooks, to have, large or small, " geistlich oder weltlich, Written. hflbsch gemolt," are all to be found at Dypold Lauber's the scribe. He had in stock Gesta Romanorum, mit den Viguren gemolt; poetical works (Pa-rcival, Tristan, Freidank); romances of chivalry (Der Witfarn Ritter; Von eime Getruwen Ritter der sin eigen Hertze gab umb einer schonen Frowen willen ; Der Ritter unter dem Zuber) ; biblical and legendary works (A Rimed Bible; A Psalter, Latin and German; Episteln and Evangelien durch dos Joe; Vita Christy; Des gantze Passional, winterteil and summerteil; devotional books (Bellial ; Der Selen Trost ; Der Rosenkrantz; Die zehn Gebot mit Glosen; Small Bette-Bucher); and books for the people (Gute bewehrte Artznien-Bucher; Gemolte Loss-Bucher, i.e. fortune-telling books; Schachtzabel gemolt), The lower educational books consisted for the most part of the Abecedaria, containing the alphabet, the Lord's Prayer, the creed, and one or two prayers; the -Donatus, a short Latin grammar extracted from the work of Aelius Donatus, a Roman grammarian of the 4th century, and distinctly mentioned in a school ordinance of Bautzen of 1418; the Doctrinale, a Latin grammar in leonine verse, compiled by Alexander Gallus (or De Villa Dei), a minorite of Brittany of the 13th century; the Summula logica of Petrus Hispanus (afterwards Pope John XXI.), used in the teaching of logic and dialectics ; and Dionysius Cato's Disticha de Moribas, and its supplement called Facetus, with the Floretus of St Bernard, used in the teaching of morals. As helps to the clergy in educating the lower classes, and as a means of assisting and promoting private devotion, there were picture books accompanied with an easy explanatory text, for the most part representations of the mystic relation 2 See further PALAEOGRAPHY. ' An original copy of one of them is in the British Museum (Addit. MS. 28752). between the Old and New Testaments (typology). Among these books the Biblia pauperum i stands first. It represents pictorially the life and passion of Christ, and there exist MSS. of it as early as the 13th century, in some cases beautifully illuminated? A richly illuminated MS. of it, executed in the Netherlands c. 1400, is in the British Museum (press-mark, King's 5), and also fragments of one of the 14th century (press-mark, 31,303). A remodelling and development of this work is the famous Speculum humanae salvationis, of which we shall speak when dealing with the block-books and early printed books. It was written in rhymed prose before 1324, and represents, in forty-five chapters, the Bible history of the fall and redemption of mankind interwoven with Mariolatry and legend. Of this work alone more than 200 MSS., illuminated or without pictures, are known to exist in various libraries of Europe. The National and Arsenal Libraries in Paris each possess one written some time after 1324; the British Museum has sixteen MSS. of it (eleven of which are illuminated) of the 14th and 15th centuries, written in the Netherlands, Germany, France and England, one (press-mark, 16,578) bearing the distinct date 1379 and another (press-mark, Egerton, 878) that of 1436. A work of a similar nature is the Apocalypsis, of which at least two recensions with illustrations may be pointed out. One gives the text as we know it, with or without commentary, for which cf. Brit. Mus. 17,333 (French), 18,633 (French, but written in England), Reg. 2 D. xiii. and 22,493 (French)—all four early 14th century. Another is more a short history or biography of St John, but the illustrations follow those of the former work very closely; cf. Brit. Mus. 19,896 (15th century, German). It is this last recension which agrees with the blockbook to be mentioned hereafter. Other devotional works are the Ars Moriendi, the Antichrist and other works which will be mentioned below among the blockbooks. Block-printing or Xylography.—When all this writing, transcribing, illustrating, &c., had reached their period of greatest development, the art of printing from wooden blocks (block-printing, xylography) on silk, cloth, vellum, .paper, &c., made its appearance in Europe. This art was already a great advance on writing, in that it enabled any one with a few simple tools to multiply impressions from any block of wood with text or pictures engraved on it, and so produce a number of single (paper) leaves or sheets with text or pictures printed on them in almost the same time that a scribe produced a single copy of them. It seems to have been practised, so far as we have evidence, on cloth, vellum and other stuffs as early as the 12th century (Weigel, Anfange, i. to) ; and on paper as far back as the second half of the 14th century; while it began to be largely employed in the early part of the 15th all over Germany, Flanders and Holland in the production of (I) separate leaves (called briefs, from breve, scriptum), containing either a picture (print, Arent, shortened from the Fr. emprint, empreinte, and already used by Chaucer, C.T. 6186, six-text, D. 604, printe, prente, preente, and in other early English documents; also called in colloquial German Helge, Helglein, or Halge), or a piece of text, or both together; and of (2) whole sheets (two leaves), a number of which, arranged like the MSS. in quires or gatherings, formed what are called " blockbooks," sometimes consisting of half picture and half text, or wholly of text, or altogether of picture. The earliest dated woodcut that we know of is the Mary engraving, discovered at Malines, and now preserved in the Brussels Royal Library. It bears the date mccccxviii. Some authors Early dated have asserted that an l has been scratched out between wood- the fourth c and the x; that, therefore, the date is 1468. Engravings. But there is no ground for such an assertion (cf. H. Hymans, L'Estampe de 1481, Brussels, 1903). A slightly modified reproduction of it, on a reduced scale, which could hardly be placed later than 1460, is preserved in the St Gall Library. The next date is 1423 found on the St Christopher, preserved in the John Rylands Library (Spencer collection) at Manchester. In the third place comes the woodcut of 1437 preserved in the Imperial Library at Vienna, which was discovered in 1779 in the monastery of St Blaise in the Black Forest, and represents the martyrdom of St Sebastian, with fourteen lines of text. The date, however, is said by some to refer to a concession of indulgences. A woodcut, preserved in the same library in Vienna, which represents St Nicolas de Tolentino, has the date 1 This title is applied to at least three works: (1) the well-known blockbook, of which we speak below, (2) a treatise " in qua de vitiis et virtutibus agitur," and (3) a work in rhyme by Alexander Gallus. See Laib and Schwarz, Biblia pauperum (Zurich, 1867).1440, but written in by hand; as the saint was canonized in that year it may refer to that event. Another in the Weigel collection, representing the bearing of the cross, St Dorothea and St Alexis, has the date 1443, also written in. by hand, though the woodcut is considered to belong to that period. These are the only known wood-engravings with dates ranging from 1418 to 1443. But there exist a good many woodcuts which, from the style of the engraving, are presumed to be of an earlier date, and to have been printed partly in the 14th and partly in the first half of the 15th century. J. D. Passavant (Le Peintre-Graveur, 186o-1864, i. 27 seq.) enumerates twenty-seven of them, all of German origin and preserved in various libraries in Germany; 154 are recorded in the Colleclio Weigeliana (vol. t., 1866), and W. L. Schreiber (La Gravure sur bois, vols. i. and ii., 1891 and 1892) enumerates over 2000 of them, some of which may be ascribed to the Netherlands, exx.g. (I) representing the Virgin Mary, with Flemish inscriptions in the museum in Berlin; (2) representing the Virgin Mary (see above) in the library at Brussels; (3) representing St Anthony and St Sebastian, in the Weigel collection (now in the Brit. Mus.); O a St Hubert and St Eustatius, in the royal library at Brussels; (5) representing the Child Jesus, in the library at Berlin; (6) the Mass of St Gregory, with indulgence, in the Weigel collection (cf. 1, 195), now at Nuremberg. In these' blocks, as in wood-engraving now, the lines to be printed were in relief. The block, after the picture or the text had been engraved, upon it, was first thoroughly wetted with a thin, watery, pale brown material, much resembling distemper; then a sheet of damp paper was laid upon it, and the back of the paper was care-fully rubbed with some kind of dabber or burnisher, usually called a frotton, till an impression from the ridges of the carved block had been transferred to the paper. In this fashion a leaf or sheet could only be printed on one side (anopisthographic) ; and in some copies of blockbooks we find the sides of the leaves on which there is no printing pasted together, so as to give the work the appearance of an ordinary book. Any one wanting to set up as a printer of briefs or books needed no apparatus but a set of woodblocks and a rubber. We know only three blockbooks which do not possess this characteristic, as the Legend of St Servatius in the royal library of Brussels, which may be called a xylo-chirograph (see below), in which the pictures occur on both sides of the paper (with some lines of text written underneath), but apparently impressed by hand from blocks without any rubbing, there being no traces of any indentures either on the rectos or the versos; Das Zeitglocklein in the Bamberg Library (cf. Falkenstein, p. 49) ; Das geistlich and weltlich Rom, in- the John Rylands Library (Spencer collection) and at Gotha (cf. Falkenstein, p. 46) ; but these belong to the end of the 15th century,. and therefore to a later period than the ordinary blockbooks: Formerly it was the general opinion that playing cards had been the first products of xylography; but the earliest that have been preserved are done by hand, while the printed Bfock cards date from the 15th century, therefore from a Printers. period in which woodcuts were already used for other purposes. Some of the wood engravings and blockbooks are sup-posed to have been printed in monasteries. In a necrology of the Franciscan monastery at Nordlingen, which comes down to the beginning of the 15th century, this entry occurs: " VII. Id. Augusti, obiit Frater h. Luger, laycus, optimus incisor lignorum and on some of the engravings we find the arms of certain monasteries, which may, however, merely mean that they were printed for, not in, those monasteries. The registers of Ulm mention several wood-engravers (formschneider)—in 1398 a certain Ulrich; in 1441 Heinrich Peter von Erolzheim, Joerg, and another Heinrich; in 1442 Ulrich and Lienhart; in 1447 Claus (Nicolas), Stoffel (Christopher) and Johann; in 1455 Wilhelm; in 1461 Meister Ulrich, &c. In a register of taxes of Nordlingen we find from 1428 to 1452 a certain Wilhelm Kegeler mentioned as brieftriicker; in 1453 his widow is called all brieftruckerin; and in 1461 his brother Wilhelm' is registered for the same craft. At Mainz there was a printer, Henne Cruse, in 1440. At Nuremberg we find in 1449 Hans (Spoerer?), a formschneider, while his son Junghans exercised the same industry from 1472 to 1490. Hans von Pfedersheim printed at Frankfort in 1459 ; Lienhart Wolff, priefdrucker, is mentioned in the registers of Regensburg of 1463 ; Peter Schott at Strassburg in 1464. A certain George Glockendon exercised the same trade at Nuremberg till 1474, when he died and was succeeded by a son and afterwards by a grandson. In Flanders a Jan de Printere was established at Antwerp in 1417; and printers and wood engravers (houte bildsnyters) worked there in 1442 (Privileges of the Corporation of St Luke at Antwerp). At Bruges printers and beeldemakers (makers or engravers of images) were enumerated in 1454 among the members of the fraternity of St John the Evangelist. The printers of playing cards seem to have constituted a separate class. All these entries show that long before the middle of the 15th century there were men who exercised the art of wood-engraving and printing as a trade or craft. It seems also certain that wealthy persons and religious institutions were wont to possess sets of blocks, and, when occasion arose, printed a set of sheets for presentation to a friend, or in the case of monasteries for sale to the passing pilgrim. A printer of briefs or blockbooks had no need to serve an apprenticeship; any neat-handed man could print for himself. We learn from the inventory of the possessions of Jean de Hinsberg, bishop of Liege (1419-1455), and his sister, a nun in the convent of Bethany, near Mechlin, that they possessed " unum instrumentum ad imprimendas scripturas et ymagines, and " novem printe lignee ad imprimendas ymagines cum quatuordecim aliis lapideis printis." These entries would seem to indicate that people purchased engraved blocks of wood or of stone from the wood-cutter rather than books from a printer. Concurrently with these single woodcuts, with or without written or xylographic text, arose a class of books, in some of which written texts were added to pictures tO- chirography. printed from wooden blocks; in others the text was written first, and woodcuts pasted or printed in spaces reserved for them. These books, combining wood-engraving with handwriting, are now in technical language called xylo-chirographs (wood-handwritten books); they may also be called semi-blockbooks, and form an intervening stage between the manuscript book and the blockbook (xylograph) entirely printed from wooden blocks. They tend to show that xylography, after having been for some time confined to the production and multiplication of insulated pictures, was gradually applied to the printing of whole series of illustrations, to be added to written texts, or to have written texts added to , them. It is not possible to assign definite dates to these xylo-chirographs; they could hardly be placed after, but may, for ought we know, be contemporaries of the blockbooks. We know nine of them; the years 144o (which occurs in No. 5) and 1463 (found in No. 9) marking, for the present, the period within which they can be placed. (1) Biblia Pauperum, in the Heidelberg University Library, German work, MS., Latin text added to engravings (cf. Schreiber, Manuel, iv. 90, c. 1460; photogr. pl. xlv.); (2) Anli-christus, one part of which is in the Paris Bibl. St Gen. (see Bernard, Orig. de l'impr. i. ,o2), another at Vienna, Alb. Bibl.; Bavarian work, MS., German text added to engravings (Schreiber iv. 231, pl. lv.); (3) Vita et Passio Jesu Christi, 48 leaves, in the Vienna Hofbibliothek, German work, the woodcuts printed on the versos, Latin prayers written on the rectos (Schreiber iv. 321, c. 145o, pl. lxxxx.); (4) Septem planetae, seven xylographically printed plates in the Berlin K. K. Library, German work, with German explanatory text written on separate leaves facing the engravings (Schreiber iv. 417, c. 1470, pl. cad.); (5) Pomerium spirituale, by Henricus de Pomerio (or Henri Vanden Bogaert), in the Brussels Royal Library, bearing the date 1440 in two places; its twelve engravings seem to have originally been published as a blockbook, without any text (see below) ; i in this copy they are cut up, pasted on other (contemporary) leaves of paper, and a Latin MS. commentary added to them (see Alvin, Documents iconogr: ; Schreiber iv. 317, pl. lxiv. ; Conway, Notes on the Exercitium super Pater Nosier; Holtrop, Mon. typ. p. 9). Some bibliographers unreasonably contend that the engravings cannot be earlier than c. 1470, and that the year 1440 is the date of the original, now lost, which the transcriber of this copy inadvertently repeated. (6) Exercitium super Pater Nosier (ascribed for good reasons to the same Henri Vanden Bogaert); imperfect copy (8 leaves) in the Paris National Library (Invent. D. 1581); woodcuts printed on the recto of each leaf , and an explanatory text (in Flemish) written underneath them (Schreiber iv. 245, pl. Ixxxvii.; Conway, 1. c.); (7) the same Exercitium, with the same eleven engravings that were issued, some time before, as a complete blockbook (see below), a copy of which is preserved in the public library at Mons, in which the engravings are cut up and (after the Flemish verses of the block-book had been cut away) pasted, with their versos, on the versos of other contemporary leaves, with an explanatory (Latin) text written oa the recto of the leaf next to each engraving (Schreiber iv. 247, pl. lxxxviii.; Conway, I. c.; (8) a MS. of the Speculum humanae salvationis, with the written date 1461 (Munich Hof.-u. Staatsbibl. cod. lat. 21543), in which the 192 illustrations, usually found in the MSS. of the Speculum, have been impressed from small wooden blocks in the spaces reserved for them in the MS. ; (9) another MS. of a German version of the Speculum in the same Munich library (Cod. Ger. 1126), with the written date 1463, in which the 192 woodcut illustrations, impressed in No. 8, are again impressed in the spaces reserved,for them. Of blockbooks of probable German origin the following are known: ,. The Apocalypsis, or Hisioria S. Johannis evengelistae ejusque visiones apocalypticae (Germ. Das Buch der haymlichen Offenbarungen Dumortier testifies to having seen a copy of the engravings unaccompanied by MS. (" Notes sur 1 imprimerie, in Bull. Acad. Roy. de BeIg., 184,, vol. viii.). Sanct Johans).—Of this work six or seven editions are said to exist, each containing 48 (the 2nd and 3rd edition 5o) illustrations, on as many anopisthographic leaves, which seem to B/ockhoeks have been divided into three quires of eight sheets each. _ The first edition alone is without signatures. Cf. S. L. origin. as Sotheby, The Blockbooks, i. 1. A copy of the 5th edition (according to W. L. Schreiber, Manuel, iv. 168), 48 leaves, is in the Cambridge University Library. A copy of the supposed 4th edition in the British Museum (C. 9, c. 1), and one of the 6th edition (IB. 14); also a single leaf (with signature H) of the 5th edition (IB. ,6). 2. Ars moriendi.—Although the origin of this work must be ascribed to the Netherlands, some authors think that there are early German editions, among others that spoken of below as the 2nd Dutch edition. Certainly German is the edition of Hans Sporer of Nuremberg (1473), in the public library at Zwickau, and a fragment of leaf 18, in the British Museum (IB. 20) ; another by Ludwig zu Ulm, in the Paris National Library, and the one described in Collectio Weigel. (ii. 16), where also other, but opisthographic, editions are described (see Sotheby i. 70; Schreiber iv. 253). A copy of one of these in the British Museum (IA. 24). A copy of an edition printed in a press and ascribed to Augsburg, in the British Museum (IB. 23). 3. Ars memorandi quatuor evangelia; 30 leaves, folio, printed on one side, 15 leaves being letterpress and 15 plates (Sotheby ii. 2; Schreiber iv. 135). Copy in the British Museum (IB. 17). 4. Salve Regina, bears the name of its engraver, Lienhart czu Regenspurck; 16 leaves; 2 leaves (signature a) are wanting in the only copy known of it, which was in the Weigel collection (ii. 103) and is now in the British Museum (IB. 1) ; Schreiber iv. 381. 5. Vita et Passio Christi (German).; 32 leaves, small 8vo. Two copies in the Paris Library (Sotheby ii. 143; Schreiber iv. 320, who describes other issues in German and Italian). 6. The Ten Commandments for Unlearned People (Die Zehn Bott fur die ungelernte Leut).—Ten leaves in the library at Heidelberg bound up, with MS. No. 438; see Joh. Geffcken, Bildercatechismus (Leipzig, 1855), 4to; Sotheby ii. 16o; W. L. Schreiber iv. 234. 7. The Passion of our Lord; 16 leaves in the Weigel collection (Sotheby ii. 141; Schreiber iv. 320), now in the British Museum (IA. 25). 8. The Antichrist (Der Enndchrist) ;.26 leaves, small folio (Sotheby ii. 38; Weigel ii. 111; Schreiber iv. 2,7). Copies in the Manchester Rylands Library (Spencer collection) ; Coll. Weig. No. 264, leaf 6 and the upper half of 7 now in the British Museum, where also a fragment of leaf 28 is preserved; four copies at Munich. 9. The Fifteen Signs of the Last Judgment; 12 engravings, usually bound up with the engravings of The Antichrist (Sotheby ii. 42; Schreiber iv. 217). Copies as of No. 8. An edition was also published at Nuremberg in 1472 by Jung hannss Priffmaler (copy at Gotha). to. Symbolum Apostolicum; small 4to, 7 leaves printed on one side only, containing 12 woodcuts. Cf. Sotheby ii. 148; also Schreiber iv. 239, who describes three editions: (I) at Vienna; (2) at Heidelberg; (3) with German inscriptions, at Munich. 11. The Legend of St Meinrad; 48 leaves. Copies in the libraries at Munich and Einsiedeln (Sotheby ii. 150; Schreiber iv. 385). 12. The Acht Schalkheiten, of which 8 leaves were in the Weigel collection (i. 112; Sotheby ii. 154). 13. The Fable of the Sick Lion; 12 leaves. Copies in the Berlin Museum, and in the Heidelberg Library (No. 438). Cf. Sotheby ii. 159, pl. lxxxvi. ; Schreiber iv. 444. 14. Defensorium Inviolatae Virginitatis b. Mariae Virginis; 16 leaves, folio, with the initials of the printer F(riedrich) W(althern) and the date 1470 on the first leaf (Schreiber iv. 368; Sotheby ii. 63). Copies in the British Museum (IB. 2) ; two at Paris; three at Munich; one at Berlin; another at Stuttgart. 15. The same work, 27 leaves, large folio, 1471, with the imprint " Johannes eysenhiit impressor (at Regensburg) Anno ab incarnacois dnice M° quadringentesimo septuagesimo j° " (cf. Sotheby ii. 72; Schreiber iv. 374). Copies in the British Museum (IC. 4). at Berlin, Gotha, Manchester. 16. The Dance of Death (Dance Macabre; der Doten Dania); 27 leaves; two editions; one in the library at Heidelberg; another at Munich (cf. Schreiber iv. 432; Sotheby ii. 156). 17. Die Kunst Ciromantia of Dr Johan Hartlieb (Sotheby ii. 84; Schreiber iv. 428). Ten leaves of the edition of Jorg Schapff of Augsburg c. 1478 in the British Museum (IB. 8). 18. Der Beichtspiegel or Confessionale; 8 engravings (Sotheby ii. 145; Schreiber iv. 252). Copy in the royal library (Mus. Meerman) at the Hague. 19. Exercitium super Pater Nosier, only one leaf (the first) pre-served at Kremsmunster, of a German edition (Schreiber iv. 247). For two xylo-chirographic issues of this Netherlandish work, see above, and below for a xylographic edition. 20. Biblia Pauperum, German text; copy in the British Museum (IB. 3); and a copy of another edition (40 leaves) with the device of Hans Spoerer, and the date 1471 (IC. 5). 21. The Apostles' Creed; 7 leaves, folio. Copy at Wolfenbuttel. 22. The Credo, in German; 12 leaves, 4to. Copy in the Munich Royal Library. 23. Propugnacula, seu Turris sapientiae (Sotheby ii. 164). One sheet, piano, in the British Museum (IC. 30). It may have originated in the Netherlands. Blockbooks of Netherlandish origin are: I. A pocalypsis S. Johannis.—Copy in the Haarlem Town Library. A copy of the 3rd (?) edition, of 5o leaves, in the British Museum 0l Nether- (IC. 4o), the leaves 36 and 38 having been supplied from O'Nei another copy. Leaf 21 of another copy in the same Origin. library. 2. Biblia Pauperum; 40 folio leaves (each bearing a signature: a to v; .a. to .v.). As many as seven editions have been distinguished by Sotheby (i. 43). Holtrop (Mon. typ. p. 3), and ten by Schreiber (iv. I), who likewise mentions a Latin edition of 5o leaves, besides the two editions with German texts of 1470 and 1471. The British Museum Catalogue of 15th-century books enumerates copies or fragments of copies of seven editions. 3. Speculum humanae salvationis.—Of this work a blockbook must have existed, of which only to sheets (= 20 leaves) with woodcuts and texts, besides 12 isolated woodcuts (used in 1483), have come down to us. We speak of it at length below when dealing with the typographic editions known of this work. 4. An moriendi; 24 leaves, small folio, 13 containing text, II plates. See above (German) No. 2; Sotheby i. 69; Holtrop, p. 8; Schreiber iv. 253, who enumerates- thirteen editions, some of which are German. The theory, started a few years ago, that the engravings of this blockbook are imitations of the sketches by the master E. S. (see M. Lehrs, Der Kunstler der Ars moriendi, 1890; L. H. Cust, The Master E. S., 1898) is wholly inadmissible. Copy in the British Museum (IB. 18), and an imperfect one in the Haarlem Town Library. 5. A copy of another edition of 24 leaves in the British Museum (IA. 19). 6. Cant learn Canticorum; Historia seu Providentia B. Virginis Mariae ex Cantico Canticorum; 16 leaves in folio, two editions (Sotheby i. 77; Holtrop, p. 6; Schreiber iv. 151). Copies in the Haarlem Town Library (wanting the leaves 3, 4, 7, I1, 13, 15, 16); the British Museum (IB. 46), which possesses also a copy of another edition (IC. 47). 7. Liber Regum, seu Historia Davidis; 20 leaves. folio (Sotheby i. 120b; Schreiber iv. 146). Some consider this to be a German work. 8. Exercitium super Pater Nester, by Henricus de Pomerio or Henry Vanden Bogaert; lo leaves, small folio (Sotheby ii. 137; Holtrop p. io; Conway, Notes on the Exercitium, 1887; Schreiber iv. 245). For other editions see the two preceding sections. 9. Pomerium Spiriluale, by the same author as No. 8; 12 leaves, having 12 woodcuts. This blockbook is now only known from a xylo-chirographic issue with the MS. date 1440 (see above), pre-served in the Brussels Royal Library. See Conway, Notes on the Exercitium. To. Temptaliones Demonis temptantis hominem de septem peccatis mortalibus; a single large folio leaf printed on one side (Sotheby i. 122& ; Schreiber ii. 249). One copy in the British Museum (IC. 29), another in the Wolfenbuttel Library. II. Vita Christi, or The Life and Passion of Christ; 36 cuts, originally printed in a press on six anopisthographic leaves, in 8vo. Copy in the Erlangen Library (Campbell, Annales, 746). 12. Historia Sanctae Crucis; a fragment of one leaf (with signature g), formerly in the Weigel Collection (ii. 92), but now in the museum at Nuremberg; it seems to be only a proof-sheet. 13. Alphabet (grotesque) in figures (Holtrop p. I I ; Sotheby i. 122; Schreiber ii. 324-327).–There is one copy in the British Museum and another in the Basel Library, the latter having the date 1464 engraved on the letter A, which is mutilated in the Museum copy. A similar alphabet preserved at Dresden seems to be a copy made in Germany. 14. Donatus (Aelius) de octo partibus orationis. Leaf 6 of an edition c. 1500 of 16 leaves in the British Museum (IA. 48). For other xvlographic editions of this work cf. Holtrop, Mon. typ. Besides the works of Sotheby, I-Ioltrop, Weigel, Schreiber, Lehrs, Cust, &c., quoted above, consult Sir W. M. Conway, The Woodcutters of the Netherlands in the 15th Century (Cambridge, 1884) ; Heinecken, Idee generale (Leipzig, 1771); J. Ph. Berjeau's Facsimiles of the Biblia Pauperum, Canticum Canticorum, Speculum (London, 1859-1861), and idem, Catal. Illustre des livres xylogr. (London, 1865) ; Dodgson, Cat. of Early German and Flemish Woodcuts in the Brit. Mus. Early Printing with movable Metal Types.—When the art of writing, and that of printing from wooden blocks (xylo- graphy), and all the subsidiary arts of illuminating, Invented at decorating and binding manuscripts, books, pictures, hfaarlem. &c., were at their greatest height, and had long passed out of the exclusive hands of the monasteries into the hands Heinecken enumerates six editions, of which one has German inscriptions. See also an article by Guichard, in Bull. du Bibliophile (Paris, 1841).
End of Article: TYPOGRAPHY (i.e. writing by types)
TYPHUS FEVER (from Gr. ri 4 os, smoke or mist, in a...

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