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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 913 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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WAR VESSELS] guns, the 13-in. guns being mounted in pairs in turrets on the upper deck, and the four 8-in. guns singly in turrets at the corners of the superstructure deck. They were followed by the " Iowa " of 11,346 tons, laid down in 1893; and in 1896 by the " Kearsarge" and " Kentucky," whose principal dimensions were:—length 368 ft., beam 72 ft., mean draught 23 ft. 6 in., displacement 11,525 tons, I.H.P. Io,5oo and speed 16 knots as designed, 12,000 I.H.P. and 16* knots being reached on trial. They carried four 13-in. guns in currets 15 in. thick, four 8-in, guns in turrets 9 in. thick, fourteen 5-in. Q.F. guns, twenty-seven smaller guns, and four torpedo tubes; and at the above displacement they carried 410 tons of coal, but could stow 1590 tons. They had a novelty in the shape of two double-storeyed turrets, one forward and one aft. In this arrangement a second turret is superposed or built on the first, the structure so formed turning as a whole; a pair of 8-in. guns is mounted in the upper turret, and a pair of 13-in. guns in the lower. A later example of American design is furnished by the five first-class battleships of the " Georgia " class (fig. 65), laid down in 1902, which have a displacement of 15,320 tons, length 435 ft., beam 76 ft. to in., and a mean draught of 24 ft.; they have a complete water-line belt of Krupp armour, from II in. to 8 in. thick, tapering to 4 in. at the bow; above this belt there is a belt of lighter armour, 6 in. thick and 245 ft. long, forming a battery for the 6-in. Q.F. guns, which extends to the upper deck; there are also four turrets—two large double-storeyed turrets, as in the " Ken- tucky," placed one forward and one aft, and two smaller turrets, one placed on each side forward. The larger turrets carry each a pair of 12-in. guns and a pair of 8-in. guns, and are protected by a maximum thickness of u-in. armour, and the smaller carry each a pair of 8-in. guns and are protected by 61-in. armour. In addition to the four 12-in. and eight 8-in. guns thus disposed, there are also twelve 6-in. guns on the main deck and some forty-two smaller guns. Machinery of 19,000 I.H.P. was provided for a.speed of 19 knots, and both were exceeded on the trials of the vessels. They carry 900 tons coal on the trial draught, and when fully loaded with 1900 tons of coal have a draught of 26 ft. This comparatively shallow draught is a distinctive feature of all the early United States battle-ships, but in later years a notable increase of draught was accepted. Between the " Kearsarge " and the " Georgia " were built in 1896–1898 the " Alabama," " Illinois " (fig. 66, Plate XVI.), and " Wisconsin," somewhat similar to the " Kearsarge," carrying four 13-in. guns and fourteen 6-in. guns, and in 1899–1901 the second " Maine," the " Missouri " and " Ohio," which more nearly'resembled the " Georgia," as they carried 12-in. guns for their main armament. The " Georgia " class was followed by two much larger vessels the " Connecticut and " Louisiana," laid down in 1903; they were 450 ft. long, 76 ft. to in. beam, 17,600 tons displacement and 24 ft. 6 in. draught-when loaded with 900 tons coal, and 26 ft. 9 in. draught when loaded with full complement of ammunition and stores and 2200 tons coal; and they marked a great advance in fighting power. While retaining four 12-in. guns for. the main armament, they carried eight 8-in. and twelve 7-in. guns as a secondary armament, and they were well protected, guns and armour being arranged as shown in fig. 67. Engines of 16,500 I.H.P. were provided for a speed of 18 knots, and both were considerably exceeded on trial. In these and later American vessels tall towers of open lattice-work, somewhat resembling the Eiffel Tower, were fitted instead of hollow steel masts for supporting signal and fire-control arrangements. . 901 While the vessels of the " Connecticut " class were building in 1904, two other very similar but smaller essels, the " Idaho "and " Mississippi," were also laid down, of 13,000 tons with reduced armament and armour and less speed. The first two American " Dreadnoughts," the " Michigan " and " South Carolina," were laid down in 1906; they are 450 ft. long, 8o ft. 3 in. beam, displacement 16,000 tons and draught 24 ft. 6 in. when carrying 900 tons of coal, increasing to 17,620 tons and 27 ft. draught when fully loaded. Engines of 16,500 I.H.P. are provided for 18.5 knots, and the armament consists of eight 12-in. guns mounted in four pairs, two pairs forward and two pairs aft, all on the middle line and arranged so that the guns of the second pair sweep over the turrets of the adjacent pair nearer the extremities of the vessel; an anti-torpedo. boat armament of twenty-two 14-pdr. guns is provided, but no secondary armament. The sides and barbettes are protected by 8 in. to 12 in. of armour, the belt armour tapering to 4 in. at the bow and stern. In 1907 the " Delaware " and " North Dakota " were laid down ; the size of the vessels was increased to 20,000 tons in order to carry 12-in. and 14-in. guns behind armour from 12 in. to 8 in. in thickness and obtain a speed of 21 knots, and they are 510 ft. long, 85 ft. beam, 26 ft. to in. mean draught. Ten 5-in, guns are carried on the main deck behind 5-in. armour, two are carried on the main deck forward and two aft, in casemates. Curtis turbines are fitted in the'" North Dakota" and reciprocating engines of the latest type in the " Delaware "; the boilers provided on each ship are for 25,000 I.H.P.; on trial the " Delaware " developed 28,578 I.H.P. and recorded a speed of 21.56 knots, while the " North Dakota "reached 31,826 H.P. and 22.25 knots. I Parsons turbines were adopted for the four battleships next laid down. The first two, the " Florida " and " Utah," commenced in 1909, are very similar to the " Delaware," but of 21,825 tons displacement and 28 ft. 6 in. mean draught. The second pair, the " Arkansas " and " Wyoming," begun in 1910, are of much greater displacement, viz., 26,000 tons; 8100 tons greater than the " Dreadnought " and 3500 tons greater than the " Orion." They are 554 ft. long, while a beam of 93 ft. and the same mean draught of 28 ft. 6 in. have been accepted. Turbines of 33,000 H.P. are provided for a speed of 20.5 knots, four propellers being fitted as in H.M.S. " Dreadnought." The coal to be carried on trial has been in-creased to '165o tons, in place of the two tons in preceding vessels. Twelve 12-in. and twenty-one 5-in. guns are carried and vanadium steel armour of 8-in. to I1-in. thickness is fitted on sides and barbettes, associated with protective decks of increased thickness. Six pairs of 12-in. guns are carried, all on the middle line; the foremost pair is 34 ft. above the designed load-line, the second pair 40 ft., and the third pair 32 ft.; the aftermost guns are 25 ft. above water, the next forward 32 ft. and the third pair from stern again at a height of 25 ft. Twenty-one 5-in, anti-torpedo-boat guns are carried, and the complement of officers and men has reached the high total of 1 too. The main armament of the later vessels, " New York " and " Texas," is composed of ten 14-in. instead of twelve 12-in. guns, and the displacement is increased to 27,000 tons and the H.P. to 35,000. Germany.—In 1885 Germany had one first-class battleship, the Konig Wilhelm," of 9567 tons displacement, and four smaller vessels, the " Baden, Bayern, Sachsen and " Wurttemberg, of 7400 tons each. The " Kaiser " and " Deutschland," central-battery ships designed by Sir Edward Reed, and two turret ships, the '` Preussen " and " F. der Grosse," followed shortly afterwards. The " Kaiser " and " Deutschland " were 285 ft. in length, had a displacement of 7600 tons, 8000 I.H.P. and 143 knots speed; were armed with eight 22-ton guns and one 18-ton gun, and had side armour of a maximum thickness of to in. The vessels of the Preussen " class were sea-going ships of thg " Monarch " type, 308 ft. in length and of 6750 tons displacement and 14 knots speed, with belt armour of a maximum thickness of 91 in. and turret armour 84 in. thick. In 1891 an advance was made by laying down the " Brandenburg " class of 9901 tons, carrying six 11-in. guns in three barbettes, one forward and one aft, and one on the middle line amidships. They were followed by the five first-class battleships of the " Kaiser "class, the last of which, the " Kaiser Friedrich III." (fig. 70, Plate XVI.), was finished in 1900. They are of 10,900 tons displacement, length 377 ft., beam 66 ft. to in., draught 25 ft. 9 in., 13,000 I.H.P. and 18 knots speed. They have belts of Krupp steel extending from the after 3"0.-. 3'QS 3'Q.I. /sag's.. " Rhode Island " and " Virginia "). 24 902 barbette to the stem, with a maximum thickness of 12 in., tapering to 6 in at the bow; there is no side armour above this belt. The main armament consists of four 9.4-in. guns, placed in pairs in barbettes, one forward and one aft, protected by 10-in. armour. On the main deck they have four 5.9-in. Q.F. guns in 6-in. armoured casemates, two on each side; and on the upper deck they have eight similar guns, protected in like manner, and six others in turrets—three each side; in all, eighteen 5.9-in. guns, besides twelve 3.5-in. and smaller guns. There are five vessels of the " Wittelsbach ' class, a development of the " Kaiser Friedrich Ill."; they are 7.o tons more displacement, .15 ft. longer and Ia ft. more beam, out are of shallower draught. They have engines of 15,000 H.P. and a speed of 19 knots, or a knot more than their predecessors. Their armament is the same, but the 9.4-in. guns are better protected. The main armour belt is somewhat longer, but in other respects the thicknesses and general disposition of the protection are similar to the " Kaiser Friedrich III." class. In the next five vessels, the " Braunschweig " class, laid down in 1901—1902, the 9.4-in. guns were replaced by II-in. guns for the main armament; and the eighteen 5.9-in. guns were replaced by fourteen 6.7-in. guns for the secondary armament. The displacement was increased to 12,988 tons, the speed of 18 knots was maintained, and the armour protection practically as in the preceding [WAR VESSELS thick, extending from the after turret to the bow; she had also a short armoured battery on the main deck which enclosed the funnel uptakes. There were eight turrets on her upper deck—one forward and one aft, each carrying two 12-in, guns, and six arranged three on each broadside, each carrying a 6.4-in. gun. The armour of the larger turrets was of the same thickness as the armour belt, namely, I t and that of the smaller turrets 5 in. She mounted eight 3.9-in. guns on the superstructure, and also had twenty-two smaller guns and four torpedo tubes, of which two were submerged. She had triple screws, engines of 16,00o I.H.P. and a speed of 18 knots. The " Republique," laid down in 1901, and the " Patrie," laid down in 1902, were superior in speed and armament to any British battle-ships then building. They had a displacement of 14,865 tons, and were of 439 ft. length, 79 ft. 6 in. beam and 27 ft. 6 in. extreme draught. They had three screws, and a nominal I.H.P. of 17,500 for a speed of 18 knots; but on trial these were considerably exceeded, the " Patrie " reporting 19,000 I.H.P. and 19.47 knots. They carried four 12-in. B.L. guns in pairs in turrets on the middle line, as in the British ships, twelve 6.4-in. Q.F. guns in pairs in turrets on the upper deck, six additional 6.4 in. Q.F. guns in casemates on the main deck, twenty-six 3-pdrs., three above-water and two sub-merged torpedo tubes. There was a complete water-line belt of a maximum thickness of 12 in., the bow was protected by 4-in. armour and there was a partral 4 -in. belt above the 12-in, belt. The pro- tective deck was 4 in. thick on the slopes, and the armour of the main turrets Ili in., the whole armour being of Harvey quality. Four later vessels of the class, "Justice," "Democratie," " Liberte " and " write," were given a still more powerful second- ary armament of 7.6-in. guns six placed in well-protected turrets at a great height above water, and four in casemates be- tween decks. Six vessels, the "Condorcet," "Danton" (fig.72), " Diderot," " Mirabeau," " Ver- gniaud" and "Voltaire, "were laid down in 1907. All had Parsons turbines of 22,500 H.P. for a speed of 19.25 knots, and their main armament consisted of four 12-in. and twelve 9.4-in, guns, as shown in fig. 72. The later French ships " Courbet " and " Jean Bart " carry twelve 12- in. guns in six pairs, two for- ward and two aft on the middle line, one pair training over the other, and one pair on each side amidships as in " Dreadnought." They are of 23,000 tons displace- ment and 20 knots speed, and have an anti-torpedo boat armament of twenty-two 5.5-in. guns, all in casemates of 7-in. armour. Japan--Previous to the Russo-Japanese War japan had provided herself with a number of excellent battleships built in Great Britain, such as the " Fuji " of 12,450 tons, laid down at the Thames Ironworks in 1894, the " Hatsuse," built at Elswick, the " Asahi," built at Clydebank, and the " Shikishima," built at the Thames Ironworks, all of about 15,000 tons displacement and laid down in 1897–1898. The dimensions of these vessels were: length 400 ft., beam 75 ft. 6 in., mean draught 27 ft. The I.H.P. was 15,oco, giving a speed of 18 knots. The armour-belt extended the full length of the ship at the water-line, and had a maximum thickness of 9 in.; between the top of this belt and the main deck, for a length of some 220 ft., was an upper belt 6 in. thick, which was continued by oblique bulkheads to the sides of the heavy-gun barbettes. The barbettes themselves, which were two in number, one forward and one aft, had armour 14 in. thick, and the conning-tower also was 14 in. thick. The armament consisted of four 12-in. 49-ton B.L. guns, two mounted in each barbette and loading in any position of training; fourteen 6-in. Q.F. guns, all in 6-in. casemates, eight on the main deck and six on the upper deck; and twenty 12-pdrs., besides smaller guns and four submerged torpedo tubes. The " Mikasa," laid down at Barrow in 1899, was a slight modification of the " Hatsuse " class design, being 200 tons heavier and 6 in. more in draught. The principal difference was that the eight 6-in. Q.F. guns on the main deck were increased to ten in number, and instead of being in separate casemates were in a 6-in. armoured central battery, with 2-in. divisional screen bulkheads. The " Hatsuse " was destroyed in the war by a mine explosion; and the Mikasa " was seriously damaged by mines. After the war she was accidentally sunk on the loth of September 1905; she was, however, refloated on the 8th of August 1906, re-paired and recommissioned. The Japanese fleet in 1910 contained -1 I / ,1111111101111C Ii"~ ~ n116MIIII ll 1uh ~~C Illlii'711'Au ^`hHuNUa m .. m `nuunua~L. ~~-u'~~IIII 111111111111! i!Illlllllllllllllllllllli III. IIIIFAuIII i' Ihlllllllllllllllllllllllll'i ,IIIIIIIIIIIIII '11!!11 IIIW' „,, „ „,, uunmmIIIN111111IIIIIIII!111111!IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIILIIIIIIIIIIIIIAli711IIIIIIII111IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIUIIIIIIIIIIUI 0 ~aIIIIIIIIIINIIIBIIIIIIIIIIYIIIIIIIIIIIilliilllllijlllllllllll ll!IIIIUIIIIIIIIIIIO'llllll llllllllllNlfs-JIIIIIII!IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIUIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII!Illuli illlllllllll ill!IIIIIIIIIIIIIII!ill!I!I~IIIIIIIIIII!ii L r 2' 2' vessels. Five vessels of the new " Deutschland " class which followed in 1903–1905 were very similar to the " Braunschweig " class. The " Nassau,” the first of the German " Dreadnoughts " laid down in 1907, was 455 ft. in length and of 18,200 tons displacement, and carried an armament of twelve II-in., twelve 5.9-in. and sixteen 3.4-in. guns, had an armour belt of Krupp steel II in. to 4 in. in thickness, I.H.P. 22,000 for 19 knots and speed on trial 20.7 knots. The " Posen " (fig. 71, Plate XVIL), " Rheinland " and " Westfalen " of the same type were also laid down in 1907 and were built and completed for sea with extraordinary rapidity. The " Westfalen " attained 20.25 knots on trial with 26,792 H.P. The next three vessels, " Thuringen,” " Helgoland " and " Ostfriesland," laid down in 1908, are provided with twelve 12-in. guns arranged as in H.M.S. " Neptune "; they are of 22,150 tons displacement and 25,000 I.H.P. for 19.5 knots speed (probably at continuous sea speed; a measured-mile speed of about 2 knots more would doubtless be expected) ; they are protected by 12-in. Krupp steel armour; their dimensions are: length 489 ft., beam 98 ft., draught 27 ft. 6 in. The vessels laid down in 1910 were said to be still larger. France.—For many years the French designers favoured the placing of the four heavy guns of their battleships in separate barbettes—a 12-in. gun at each end and a 10.8-in. gun on each side of the vessel amidships, intermediate positions being arranged for the smaller guns. Such vessels as the " Carnot," " Charles Martel," " Jaureguiberry," " Massena," " Bouvet " approximating to 12,000 tons displacement, and built in the 'nineties, were so arranged. These were followed by a series of vessels in which the 12-in. gun alone was accepted for the main armament, and two pairs were fitted, one forward and one aft as in British vessels; the " Gaulois," " Charlemagne" " St Louis " and "Suffren " were so arranged. The " Suffren, ' commenced in 1899 (displacement 12,728 tons, length 410 ft., beam 70 ft. and draught 27 ft. 6 in.), had a complete water-line belt of Harveyized steel armour of III in. maximum thickness, and above this, up to the main deck, similar armour, 5 in. 904 " Dreadnought," but laid down 21 years earlier; she carries four 122-in. and fourteen 8-in. guns as well as twelve 4.7-in. guns arranged as shown in fig. 75, from which it will be seen that an attempt was made to protect almost the whole of the vessel above water with armour varying from 81 in. to 3 in. in thickness. Engines of 17,600 I.H.P. are provided for 18 knots speed. A sister vessel, " Andrei Pervoz- II vanni," was also laid down in 1903, but neither vessel was completed in time to take part in the war. In 1909 four vessels were laid down, which were again larger than any then building for any other power, viz. the " Sevastopol," " Petropavlovsk," " Gangut and " Poltava," of 23,000 tons displacement, with Parsons turbines of 42,000 H.P. for 23 knots speed, 600 ft. long, 89 ft. beam, 27 ft. 3 in. draught, protected by u-in. armour, armed with twelve 12-in. and sixteen 4.7-in. guns, the 12-in. guns being carried in four three-gun turrets placed at considerable distances apart on the middle line. Italy.—The Italian navy has always contained interesting vessels embodying the independent thought and skill of her own designers. The " Duilio," launched in 1876, and the " Dandolo," launched in 1878, were 340 ft. in length, 10,400 tons displacement, and carried four loo-ton M.L. rifled guns, mounted in two turrets and capable of penetrating 22.7 in. of iron at 1000 yds. They had a central citadel 107 ft. in length, pro- tected by 211 in. of steel armour, with 18-in. armour on the turrets. Their engines were of 7900 I.H.P., giving a speed of 15 knots. In the " Italia " and " Lepanto," launched in 188o and 1883 respectively, side armour was dispensed with, a curved 3-in. armour deck, with its sides 51 ft. below the water-line, being fitted from stem to stern, with armour glacis protection to the funnel openings, &c., in this deck; they carried four too-ton breech-loading guns mounted in two barbettes arranged so as to permit all four guns to fire ahead, astern or on either broadside as in " Inflexible ; their displacement was 13,500 tons, their length 400 ft., and they had engines of 18,000 1 H.P. designed to give a speed of 18 knots. They were followed by three of the " Andrea Doria ' class of t i,000 tons, launched in 1884 and 1885, armed with four lo5-ton breech-loaders, and protected by an i8-in. belt of compound armour; and by the " Re Umberto," " Sicilia " and " Sardegna " of 13,250 tons, launched 1888 to 1891, and armed with four 67-ton B.L. guns having a penetration of 27 in. of iron at moo yds. In 1897 Italy launched the second-class battleships Amniiraglio di Saint Bon " and the " Emanuele Filiberto " of 980o tons and 18 knots speed, carrying four 10-in., eight 6-in. and eight[WAR VESSELS 4.7-in. guns and armoured with to-in. to 4-in. armour. These were followed by the " Regina Margherita," laid down in 1898, and the " Benedetto Brin," laid down in 1899, two vessels of 13,426 tons displacement and 20 knots speed, of good freeboard, carrying an armament similar to that of the" Duncan " and in addition four 8-in. guns; the 12-in. guns are protected by Io-in. armour, the 6-in. guns and the ship's sides by 6-in. armour with 3-in. side plating for- ward and aft. Four very notable vessels were next laid down—the " Regina Elena " (fig. 76, Plate XVII.) and "Vittorio Emanuele III." in 1901, and the " Napoli " and " Roma " in 1903, each on a displacement of 12,625 tons, carrying two 12-in. and twelve 8-in. guns in turrets, as well as a large number of small quick-firing guns; their machinery of 20,000 I.H.P. is provided for a speed of 22 knots; their hulls are cut down, giving reduced freeboard as compared with " Benedetto Brin," and the hulls and machinery are built as lightly as possible. For several years no new design was adopted, but in 1909 the "Dante Alighieri " was laid down, of 18,700 tons displacement, an increase of 5o% over that of the preceding vessels. She was reported to be 492 ft. long, 79 ft. beam, carrying twelve 12-in., eighteen 4 7-in. and sixteen 3-in. guns, turbines of 30,000 H.P. being provided for a speed of 23 knots, and side armour fitted 9 in. thick amidships tapering to '6 in. forward and 41 in. aft. Three later vessels, the " Conte di Cavour," " Giulio Cesare " and " Leonardo da Vinci," are of 22,000 tons, 35,000 H.P., 23 knots, and carry thirteen 12-inch guns. Austria.—Until quite recently Austria has made no attempt to maintain battleships of the first class. Three small battleships, the " Monarch," " Budapest " and " Wien," were laid down in 1893-1894, of 5550 tons displacement and 171 knots speed, carrying four 9.4-in., six 6-in. and twelve 3-pdr. guns, with armour Io1 in. to 4 in. in thickness. In 1899 three larger vessels, the '' Habsburg ' • (fig. 77, Plate XVII.), " Arpad " and " Baben- berg," were begun, of 834o tons displacement and 18 knots speed, carrying three 9.4-in., twelve 6-in. and several smaller Q.F. guns and well armoured. In 1901 it was decided to build the Erzherzog Karl Friedrich " and " Ferdinand Max," of 10,600 tons and 19 knots, carrying four 9.4-in. and small Q.F. guns as in the " Monarch," but with the secondary armament increased to twelv n°•"u' 7uI111FI11111uF.iil~]1U111IKiiIIII11F111111111'fi!'N "mliilllLll!III1 nn1 111~ -• ... 1110ll ~7 HiiiiiI:AIIm•,ILC::":: ii1111111111111~_ 1: r~111 IIBII~K~3fllllll dm1EYIlunuuu!u!lad!nutiiiil!iiiiiiNfnulK1nl11nlnu!mmnmm l 5 n!ulu tun!n mimHlmnmomommm!o iiEnnm!mmil mu! ilunuvni iusumuiiiiiiii ummmomo l[IDUmumu d~TiIIIINIINI!IIIIIIIIIINIdIIgNhlllllllllltlhmullulllllllllllllllilRUIIII!lulllllllulllltlmu u,imllll!111!IIIIII!II1111111111111111IIsIpeisjImlllllllullm11mlllullllllllllllllllIllllllllllluiIII!IIIIsIIIIIIsIIn111111111mIIIIIItlIIIIIV . 1151"';mmimrlmmllmulluulmlmr..mliu Illmmlmllulullx mmmnnumuninnunuluunxrYyaouanl nlnnlnuutlunlnunn- xulumuuumnunnlr~.y mim •:."nrMnh .amilmnumammfmmlmmmnnmunm mim Innuuluuml~Inmm~nnmmmitmmi u111umunu m mnmlmmnIMilQ11n nuns IIIIImulIIIIIrIIllImuet olnllI1nIIIIIIfhI!illilullmlli llmnllllllnllxri:!, m m is Uf ' iu' S~ ~~ ` dll!III 10' I!S Ir!?l!!,,,,Iwl„~xx.,,o•~I`x,x~. ,W nurnum::.,l~~umiinnnu;;,, iuumY:xmm: munnllI1"1i1 u1111suuml emnn:.:Il~I,HinS7Y:Il"P'l5115I1111lt~ ' nnennunmmmaunuu Itlll I llmm~xnnnummlmmmmn11mMl.ulul Immluiefm!ulfluunlunrinmma nmm~unumnlomm~mm~uumunnuIIli I.lnfllllll 55 1.,FJL'I:Y'..tlC 1i..l1r.r 7.'.YC"':n'~.51 Iml rx•• ;1x51111 Ixlix ill I 17!iL't5li'i.. lI' ll R1'A11'.1Y1.1:III!IP Yi!Y. IIII - ,Y' . L'I~it;aRnI9ll:l1ll"lllsmll ll_.' .I!I:nIlRll!x!!lIlIlIlImIIIlIlIlIlIlIiIlIlIl!lIlIlIlIlIlIlIlIlIlIlIlIlIlIlIlIlImIII!II1I1I1I1I1I'I.'IIIIinI llllIIlllllll0,4 III ~~ W..ommmila,olnlnnie~~ —.a- ------------ Hull. Propulsive Machinery. Vessel. ''8'-e '4 d .a GQ o a v a I.H.P. 0 Engines. Boilers. Armament Heavy Thickest Cost (ex- «, ^ d u 4a aA E c (including Machine Guns- Armour. eluding ~ a .a El ,n Guns). where Guns). mounted. Warrior . . 1860 Iron Ft. Ft. In. Ft. In. Tons Knots 6,000 x Horizontal, trunk, jet- Io rectangular 28-7' 6k ton guns Broadside Inches £ 38o 58 0 26 7 8,83o 14'25 condensing 22 lb pressure 4i 356,693 r expansion , set of 2 cylinders; 112"X 48' Agincourt . 1865 „ 400 59 3 28 2 x0,690 14.8 5,000 I Horizontal, jet- Io rectangular 17-12 ton M.L.R. Broadside 58 496,069 condensing x expansion I set of 2 cylinders; I01' X 54' Bellerophon . 1865 „ 300 56 1 26 0 7,550 14.2 6,500 Horizontal, trunk, Rectangular 10-14 ton and Central 6 447,618 surface-condensing 26 lb pressure 5-6l ton guns battery i expansion x set of 2 cylinders; 104'X48' Monarch . . 1868 „ 330 6 z6 0 8,300 15'0 7,850 I Horizontal Rectangular 4-12' 25 ton, Turrets Turrets, ro 478,971 t expansion 314 lb pressure 2--9" 12 ton, Sides, 7 r set of 2 cylinders; 1-7' 61 ton and I20' X 54' zo small guns Sultan. . . 1870 „ 325 Si o 26 I 9,300. 14.1 7,700 I Horizontal, trunk, Rectangular 8-18 ton and Central 9 485,155 surface-condensing 3o lb pressure 4-12 ton guns battery 1 expansion I set of 2 cylinders; 118"X 54' Devastation . 1371 „ 285 62 4 27 0 9,330 i 14.2 7,000 2 Horizontal, trunk, 8 rectangular 4-12' 35 ton and Turrets Turrets, 14 430,746 surface-condensing 30 lb pressure to smaller guns Sides, II r expansion 2 torpedo tubes 2 sets of 2 cylinders; 88"X 39' Inflexible . 1876 „ 320 75 0 26 4 Ir,88o 14'0 8,000 2 Vertical 8 single-ended, oval 4- 16' 8o ton and Turrets 24 1951,406 2 expansions 4 double „ „ 8-4' 22 cwt. guns 2 sets of 3 cylinders; 6o lb pressure 4-14' torpedo 70'+2©90'X48' tubes Benbow . . 1885 Steel 330 68 6 28 0 Io,600 16.9 11,50o 2 Vertical 1,2 oval 2-161" ISO ton, Barbettes 18 774,791 2 expansions lo-6" and 2 sets of 3 cylinders; 13 smaller guns 52'+2@74'X45" 5 torpedo tubes Royal Sove- 1891 „ 380 75 o 27 6 14,150 17'5, 13,000 2 Vertical 8 single-ended 4-13)' 67 ton, Barbettes 18 839,136 reign 3 expansions return tube Io-6" and 2 sets of 3 cylinders; 148 lb pressure 38 smaller guns 40'+59'+88'X51' 7 torpedo tubes Majestic . . 1896 „ 390 75 0 27 6 14,900 17.5 12,000 2 Vertical 8 single-ended 4-12' 46 ton, Barbettes, Barbettes, 872,458 3 expansions return tube 12-6" and hooded 14 2 sets of 3 cylinders; boilers 38 smaller guns Sides, q 40'+59"+88"X43' 5-18"torpedo tubes Harveyized Formidable . 1898 „ " 400 75 o 26 g 15,000 18.0 15,000 2 Vertical 20 Belleville, with 4-12' 46 ton, Barbettes, Barbettes, 1,022,745 3 expansions economizers xz-6" and hooded 12 a sets of 3 cylinders; 300 lb pressure 32 smaller guns Sides, 9 250 lb pressure 4-18 "torpedo tubes Krupp 31)'+51i'+84'X51' Duncan . . 1901 „ 405 75 6 26 6 14,000 19.0 18,000 2 Vertical 24 Belleville, with 4-12', Barbettes, Barbettes, 1,023,147 3 expansions economizers x2-6" and hooded 14 2 sets of 4 cylinders; a6 smaller guns Sides, 7 33)'+54'2 +2 ©63' X 4 torpedo tubes 48' Swiftsure. . r9o3 „ 436 71 0 24 7 Ir,800 20'0 12,500 2 Vertical triple ex- Yarrow large tube 4-10', 14-7'5', Barbettes 10 849,474 pansion 14-14 Pr., 2-12 2 sets of 4 cylinders; pr., and 8-6 pr. 29"+47"+2©54' X and machine guns 39' King 1903 „ 425 78 0 26 9 16,350 15.5 18,000 2 Vertical triple ex- Babcock and Wil- 4-12', 4-9.2", Barbettes 12 1,383,845 Edward pansion cox and cylindrical xo-6", 14-12 pr., VII 2 sets of 4 cylinders; 17-3 pr. and 38"+60"+2©67" X machine guns 48' 4 torpedo tubes Lord Nelson 1906 „ 410 79 6 27 0 16,500 18.5 16,750 2 Vertical triple ex- 1.5 Yarrow large 4-12', 10-9•2". Barbettes 12 1,540,889 4 pansion tube and 24-12 pr. and 2 sets of 4 cylinders; 5 machine guns 33"+53'+2@60" X 5 torpedo tubes 48' Dreadnought 1go6 „ 490 82 0 26 6 17,900 21.6 23,000 Parsons turbines Babcock and Wil- 10-12', 24-12 pr. Barbettes II 1,699,900 cox and 5 machine guns 5 torpedo tubes Imperator 1907 n 429' 9' 79 9 28 6 17,400 18•o 17,600 2 Vertical triple ex- Belleville 4-12', 14-8', Barbettes 12 1,170,000 Pavel I. pansion 12-4'7", and 14 (Russian) smaller, light and machine guns 5 torpedo tubes Posen . Igo8 „ 455 88 6 26 6 18,200 205 20,000 3 (German) 3 sets 4-cylinder Schultz-Thorny- 12-1I', 12-5.9', Barbettes 12 1,800,000 vertical triple ex- croft 2osmaller, light and pansion machine guns 6 torpedo tubes Vessel. u Hull. o I.H.P. Propulsive Machinery. Armament Heavy Thickest Cost d A ,5 (including Machine Guns— Armour. (excluding Q.1 Guns). where Guns). mounted. o Engines. Boilers. v 0 Zr;.', b ' s a_a v u,; a Q ' a{ 5 s SAa g Erzherzog 1908 Steel. Ft. Ft. In. Ft. I. Tons. Knots '20,000 2' 2 sets 4-cylinder Yarrow 4—12', 8—9'4', Barbettes Inches £ Franz 45o' 9" 8o 6 26 6 14,226 20.5 vertical triple ex- 20—3'9', 6.12 pr. 10 Ferdinand pansion and 2 machine (Austrian) guns 3 torpedo tubes Minas Geraes 1908 „ 500 83 0 25 o 19,281 21.4 27,212 2 Vertical triple ex- Babcock and Wit- 12—12', 22—4'7, „ 12 1,821,400 (Brazilian) pansion cox and 8—3 C. guns Delaware , 1909 510 85 3 27 0 20,000 21.5 28,578 2 Vertical triple ex- Babcock and Wit- 10—12', 14—5', „ 11 (United pansion cox and ro smaller, States) light and machine guns 2 torpedo tubes Danton . 1909 „ 476 84 0 27 0 18,o28 19'25 22,500 4 Parsons turbines 4—12', 12—9.4”, ,, 12 2 068,000 (French) and 26 smaller, light and machine guns 2 torpedo tubes Kawachi . . Bdg. 520 84 0 27 0 20,800 20.0 26,500 4 Curtis turbines Miyabara small 12—12', 10--6', „ 12 (Japanese) in tube and 12—4'7' guns 1920 5 torpedo tubes Alfonso 435 78 9 25 6 15,460 19'5 15,300 4 Parsons turbines .Yarrow 8—12”, 20—4', „ 10 .. (Spanish) .and 2 machine guns 3 torpedo tubes Moreno 578 95 9 27 6 28,000 21 39,500 . • Curtis turbines Babcock and Wil- 12—12', 12—6' ,, 12 2,200,000 (Argentine) cox 16-4”, and 10 smaller guns 2=21' torp: tubes 7i-in. guns all well protected, while the next step was to vessels of a type very similar to the " King Edward VII.” class, but of greater gun-power and higher speed, with somewhat thinner armour and smaller coal capacity. These vessels, " Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand,” Radetsky " and " Zrinigi,” were being completed in 1910. Their arrangements of guns and armour are shown in fig. 78. Battle-ships of far greater fighting value were in 1910 laid down by Austria; of 20,000 tons displacement, 25,0d0 H.P., and 22 'knots speed, mounting ten 12-in. guns, protected by 11-in. armour, and costing about 2TS millions sterling each. Brazil.—For several years by mutual arrangement no battleships were added to the South American navies, but in 1906 Brazil ordered three vessels of 19,281 tons, 138o tons heavier than the " Dread-nought," which was not then finished; the first two of 'these carry twelve 12-in. guns in place of the ten of the " Dreadnought," and can fire ten guns on either broadside, eight ahead and eight astern; they also carry fourteen 4.7-in. guns behind 9-in. armour on the main deck, and eight behind thinner armour on the upper deck. The ship's side, barbettes and gun mountings are protected by 9-in. armour, the belt armour tapering to 4-in. forward and aft. The vessels are 500 ft. long, 83 ft. beam and 25 ft. draught; engines of 23,500 I.H.P. being provided for 21 knots. The leading vessel, the " Minas Geraes " (fig. 79, Plate XVIII.), was built at Elswick; she obtained about 211 knots on trial, and passed through all her severe gun trials with great success. Fig. 8o shows the general arrangements of guns and armour. The second vessel, the " Sao Paulo," was built at Barrow, and was' also completed to the same design. The third vessel, the " Rio de Janeiro," which in 1910 was being built by the Elswick firm, .has been redesigned to be 655 ft. in length over all, 92 ft. beam and 32,000 tons displacement on a draught of 26 ft. Her armament was to be twelve i4-in. guns, with a secondary armament of fourteen 6-in. guns, an anti-torpedo armament of fourteen 4-in. guns, as well as a number of smaller guns, and three submerged torpedo tubes. She was fitted with four screws and turbines of 45,000 H.P. to drive her at 22i knots. Her cost was reported to be almost £3,000,000, and in 1910 she was by far the largest vessel on the stocks. Argentine Republic.—Early in 1910 the Argentine Republic ordered two vessels, the " Moreno ' and " Rivadavia," of 28,000 tons, armed with twelve 12-in. guns, twelve 6-in. and sixteen 4-in. guns, to be built by the New York Shipbuilding Co. and the Fore River Shipbuilding Co. respectively. Their displacement is much greater than that of the largest battleships building at the time they were ordered, although they are 4000 tops smaller than the " Rio de Janeiro." They are 578 ft. long, 96 ft. beam, 271 ft. draught, and turbines of 40,000 H.P. are provided for a speed of 221 knots. The armament is arranged somewhat as in " Minas Geraes," but with the midship barbettes arranged so that the guns can fire on either broadside, giving a fire of twelve guns on either broadside, eight ahead and eight astern. The ship's side and the heavy guns are protected by 12-in. armour, and the 6-in. guns by6-in. armour; 1600 tons of coal are carried on the load draught out of a possible 4000 tons, and there is also a large stowage for oil fuel. Spain.-For some years battleship building was suspended in Spain, but, after considerable negotiation with British firms, designs were approved for three vessels of 15,130 tons and 19i knots, to carry eight 12-in. and twenty 4-in. guns, with Io-in. armour on the barbettes, 9 in. on side tapering to 3 in. at bow and .qq. in. at, stern, and fore and aft internal bulkheads 11 in. thick for protection against torpedoes. These vessels were named " Espana," laid down in 1909, " Alfonso XIII." and " Jaime I.," in 1910. Smaller Battleships.—At various times several of the naval powers have laid down smaller battleships than those already referred to, such as the British " Conqueror " and " Hero," of 6200 tons, launched in 1882 and 1888 respectively; the armoured Coast Defence ships of France, of which the " Admiral Trehouart," launched 1893, of 6534 tons, 17 knots, carrying two 12-in. and eight 3.9-in. guns with good armour' protection, is a good example; the monitors of the United States named " Little Rock," &c., launched in 1900, of 3235 tons and 12 knots, carrying two 12-in. and four 4-in. guns; and the principal battleships of the lesser European powers. A good example of the last is the Norwegian armour-clad " Norge " (fig. 81, Plate XV.). This vessel and her sister the " Eidsvold," with their predecessors " Harald Haarfagre " and -"" Tordenskjold," were built at Elswick for the royal Norwegian navy, and completed in 1900. They had a displacement of 385o tons, length 290 ft., beam 5o ft. 6 in., draught 16 ft. 6 in., and with twin-screw engines of 4500 horse-power attained 161 knots speed. They were heavily armed with two 8-in. B.L. guns in armoured gun-houses, one at each end of the vessel; six 6-in. Q.F. guns, four mounted in 5-in. nickel steel casemates, and two in the open, with strong shields; eight I2-pdrs. and six 3-pdrs.; and two submerged torpedo tubes. The water-line was protected with 6-in. Krupp armour over a length of 170 ft., and bulkheads of the same thickness were provided at each end of the belt. These ships form a class of vessels of small size which would prove formidable opponents to many larger armoured ships, and are especially useful for coast-defence purposes. Table XVI. shows the development of the leading features of notable armoured battleships from the time of the " Warrior." Cruisers.—The cruiser type was primarily intended to co-operate with armour-clad fleets, in the same manner as sailing frigates did with fleets of sailing line-of-battle ships, and the earliest cruisers were modelled directly upon the frigates which preceded them, the differences between the two being those incidental to the use of steam power and to the substitution of iron for wood as the building material. As steam propulsion grew in favour engines of greater power were provided, and the rig and sail-spread were reduced till at the present day they enabled more efficient protection to be provided with a much thinner belt than had previously been possible. The Elswick cruiser " Esmeralda " (second), built for Chile in 1895, was one of the first in which the use of side armour was revived. She was followed by other vessels of the armoured type built by the same firm for the Chilean and Japanese navies. In 1898 the " Cressy " class (fig. 83, Plate XXI.) was begun for the British navy, and since this date all cruisers of 9000 tons and above for the British navy have been provided with side armour. In the United States the adoption of armour belts of the new material for cruisers came somewhat earlier than it did in the British navy, the " Brooklyn " (fig. 84, Plate XXII.), built in 1845, being so protected; and the development of the type has been very marked in recent years, the tendency being to go to larger displacements, in order to provide greater protection and heavier armaments, with each new class of vessel. Indeed, the first-class armoured cruiser of 1910 might be very well described as a high-speed battleship. In the British navy, as might be expected, the demand for vessels to meet the varied and diverse re- quirements that necessarily arise in a fleet of such magnitude has led to the production of a number of types, each adapted to its own special duties. They may be classified as (1) unprotected cruisers; (2) protected cruisers of first, second and third classes; and (3) armoured cruisers. Unprotected cruisers have neither side armour nor other • protection of Guns and Armour of " Minas Geraes.' against loss of buoyancy ' from classes had been given a partial protective deck, the EIswick- 1 injury by shot and shell: Protected cruisers have no side or vertical armour, but they have horizontal arthour.- decks with" strong sloping sides in the vicinity of the water-line, upon which coal 19 carried in minutely divided bunker compartments. Armoured cruisers have side or vertical armour in addition to protective decks. Each of these classes includes a number of groups of sister ships,- but ' we 'shall confine ourselves to describing the main features, of a representative ship in a few of the most important groups. The protected cruiser of medium displacement affords a convenient starting-point, as the latest vessels of this type in 1910 were of about the same displacement as the largest first- Second-class cruisers of thirty years before, and a comparison of class representative ships of these classes illustrates the great cruisers. advances made in thirty years in ships of approximately the same size; while a further comparison of these second-class cruisers (as the vessels of medium displacement are styled) with the first-class protected cruisers and the armoured cruisers of the present day shows the growth in size and power of the largest units of the cruiser type during the same period. It should, however, be noted that while some second-class cruisers reached such a displacement (5600 tons) as to allow of this comparison being made, the great bulk of the vessels of this class were smaller. The " Mersey " is an early example of a vessel of this class which has seen • considerable service. Begun in 1883, her principal dimensions are: length Soo ft., beam 46 ft., mean draught about 20 ft., and displacement 4050 tons Protection to the vitals of the ship is provided for by means of a have entirely disappeared. When the final adoption of iron led to the remodelling of the details of construction by Sir E. J. Reed, the new system of construction was applied to the cruisers of the day, but no attempt was made till much later to give these cruisers any protection, nor was the question of their armament given the importance which it afterwards came to have. Lord Armstrong was one of the first to recognize the importance of developing this class of vessel. He considered the essential features of a cruiser to be high speed, protection without the use of side armour, a powerful armament and minimum size and cost; and his views were adopted by the Elswick firm in a large number of cruisers built for foreign Powers down to the introduction of high explosives, when side armour was advocated in place of, or in addition to, the armour deck. The cruisers built for the British navy prior to 188o—of which the principal types were such vessels as the " Inconstant," of 5780 tons (1866) ; the " Active," of 3080 tons (1867); the " Raleigh," of 5200 tons (1871); and the faster despatch vessels " Iris " and " Mercury," of 3730 tons (1875)—had been almost entirely unprotected; and - although the " Comus " and " Leander " ol' iin ~. .II ,ri^. ' Amu "d-'fir-~iw Ii!CINIIN~IItin, 'Nl ssi::!g 'INI„~I,IINIRIII 111IIdpIInluhNYNNNI IBIINIF't' .:`'dIINNNNL~=INNNIociamoum' =JIIIII INl1NNNNItlIm wNINNNNIII~iIIIIIINN' " INNIHiI~ImI~ 11II111111 31111IIIIIIIIIIII1111 11111111IM1111alMIIII IIINIINNIMMIIINNNiN1NNII~NNNNINIL'NM111NIIIN6:11NNNINNNIM110N1111MIIINIINI IINIINNIIIflIMOKIII NIIIIIIIINE11111NllIDI M11111111IM1111 1 11111IINIIIrAIIiIHIIIIllUlilllilsNIMINIIIIE1 0101MIMIIIIIUIIIIMgIIIMIMMIUNgBINhllll(gIIlEIINtlUIIIfEMIM18UHIIIMMIIIMMIMItlkMIInhIIIilIE1111111NIBflIlIIM1111I111NIIB IIk built " Esmeralda " (1883) (fig. 82, Plate XXIII.) may be quoted as the first vessel in which the important features of a complete protective deck and good protection to the guns were combined with high speed and a powerful armament: On the other hand, the " Imperieuse " and " Warspite," completed. in 1881, of much greater displacement than the " Esmeralda," were provided with a partial belt of so-in. compound armour in combination with a protective deck. Thus the necessity for protecting cruisers led to the introduction of two types—the " protected " cruiser, of which the " Esmeralda " may be taken as the pioneer, and the " armoured " cruiser, of which the " Imperieuse " and " Warspite " are early representatives; but while in the British navy the .`` protected " cruiser type was repeated and developed, the " armoured " type was discontinued, and with the exception of the " Orlando " class, built shortly afterwards, the whole of the cruisers built for the British navy for another fifteen years were of the " protected " type. In France and Russia, however, the armoured cruiser continued in favour, the " Dupuy de Lome " of 1890, for the former, and the " Rurik " of 1892, for the latter, being vessels of this type. The reintroduction of side armour in British-built cruisers came about when the improvement of armour by the develop- ment of the Harvey and Krupp processes of manufacture ' protective deck a little above the level of the water-line, 2 to 3 in. in thickness, in combination with a system of coal-stowage in bunkers along the water-line. She carried two 8-in. and ten 6-in. B.L. guns and four torpedo tubes. Her horse-power was 6000 (forced draught) and speed 17.3 knots, and she carried 750 tons of coal at normal draught, with capacity for 900 tons. The " Astraea," begun in 1890, may be taken as representing the second-class cruisers of that date. She is built of steel, sheathed and coppered, is 320 ft. long, 49 ft. 6 in. beam, 21 ft. 6 in. mean draught and 4360 tons displacement, and carries two 6-in. Q.F. guns and eight 4.7-in. Q.F. guns, all on the upper deck and protected by shields, together with four torpedo tubes. She is protected by a steel deck 1 in. to 2 in. thick, and the engine cylinders, which project through this deck, are shielded by 5-in. sloping coamings. The coal bunkers in the neighbourhood of the water-line are minutely subdivided, and the stowage is arranged so as to make full use of the coal protection. Her engines develop 9000 H.P. (under forced draught) and her speed is 19.5 knots. Her coal stowage is 10oo tons. The " Hermes " (fig 85, Plate XX.) is one of the largest second-class cruisers added to the Royal Navy. She is 350 ft. long, 54 ft. beam, 20 ft. 6 in. mean draught and 5600 tons displacement. She presents a striking contrast compared with the " Inconstant," built in 1866, of almost the same displacement. The " Inconstant " was fully rigged, and sailed almost as fast as she steamed; while the " Hermes " has no sail, and steams 20 knots, or 6 knots faster than did the older vessel. The " Inconstant " was entirely unprotected, and carried her guns on the broadside, with very limited arcs of training; whilst the " Hermes " has all-round fire, the fire ahead and astern is a very large percentage of that on the broadside, and her guns all train through large arcs (120° and above) and are well protected by enveloping shields, and the ship herself is protected by a steel deck 12 to 3 in. thick, besides having coal protection. The " Inconstant's " main armament consisted of ten 9-in. and six 7-in. M.L. guns; the " Hermes'," of eleven 6-in. Q.F. guns, each firing probably ten rounds to one of the " Inconstant's " 9-in., and with a perforation of wrought iron of about one-third as much again. Tha " Hermes " is built of steel, sheathed with wood and coppered. She carries also eight 12-pdrs. and six 3-pdrs., and two submerged torpedo tubes. She has Belleville boilers, developing 10,000 H.P. and giving her a speed of 20 knots. Somewhat similar to the " Hermes " in external appearance, the four vessels of the " Arrogant " class (fig. 86, Plate XX.) possess certain features of special interest which distinguish them from all other second-class cruisers, in which class they are usually included. They are of 150 tons greater displacement than the "Hermes," are 30 ft. shorter, but have 3 ft. 6 in. more beam and 6 in. more draught. They are built of steel and are unsheathed, have Belleville boilers, and engines giving io,00o H.P. and a speed of 19 knots. They have an armament of four 6-in. Q.F. guns, three of which fire right ahead and one right astern; six 4.7-in. Q.F. guns, three on each broadside; eight 12-pdrs.; nine smaller guns; and two submerged torpedo tubes. All the guns are mounted on the upper deck in shields. The protective deck varies from 11 in. to 3 in. in thickness. The bow is protected by a belt of 2-in. nickel steel extending to about 40 ft. back from the ram, the top of this belt being level with the main deck, and the bottom edge sloping downwards to strengthen the ram, and a cofferdam formed by two water-tight transverse bulkheads about 3 ft. apart, and extending from keel to main deck, separates the bow from the rest of the vessel. The "Arrogants are fitted with tandem rudders, and the deadwood at the after end of the ship is cut away. The " Gladiator," which was sunk in the Solent in 1908 after collision with the " St Paul," was one of the " Arrogant " class. The Canadian cruiser " Rainbow," one of the " Apollo " class, very similar to but smaller than the " Astraea " class, is of 3400 tons, 9000 I.H.P., 20 knots, and carries two 6-in. Q.F., six 4.7-in. Q.F., eight 6-pdrs., and four torpedo tubes. The protected cruisers of greater displacement, or first-class cruisers, as they were called, may be divided into four well-marked classes: " Blake " and " Blenheim " class, " Edgar " class (fig. 87, Plate XIX.), " Powerful " and " Terrible " class (fig. 88, Plate XIX.) and the " Diadem " class. The " Blake " and " Blenheim," begun in 1888, were amongst the earliest cruisers designed by Sir William White Girsr-class at the Admiralty; they are of 9000 tons displacement, cruisers. 375 ft. long, 65 ft. beam and 27 ft. draught. They carry two 9.2-in. B.L. guns, one firing directly ahead and the other directly astern, protected by open shields 6 In. thick; ten 6-in. Q.F. guns, of which four are on the main deck, protected by casemates of 6-in. compound armour, and six on the upper deck in shields; sixteen 3-pdrs.; two submerged and two above water torpedo tubes. Their protection consists of a complete armour deck of steel 3 in. to 6 in. thick, with a dome or coaming over the tops of the cylinders 4 in. to 8 in. thick. Their machinery consists of four independent sets of vertical triple-expansion engines, two on each shaft, for which steam is provided from six double-ended cylindrical boilers, giving 20,000, H.P. under forced draught, and a speed of 21 knots; with open stokeholds their power is 13,000 H.P., which gives them a speed of 19; knots. They carry 1500 tons of coal. The " Edgar " class, begun in 1889, are vessels of 7350 tons displacement, 36o ft. long, 6o ft. beam and 23 ft. 9 in. mean draught. Their armaments consist of two 9.2-in. B.L. guns and ten 6-in. Q.F., disposed and protected in the same way as the corresponding guns of the " Blake," with twenty-four smaller and machine guns, two submerged and two above-water torpedo tubes. The protective deck has a maximum thickness of 5 in., and the cylinders are protected by a raised coaming on this deck, with sloping sides 6 in. thick. They have six double-ended cylindrical boilers and two sets of vertical triple-expansion engines, developing with forced draught 12,000 I.H.P. and giving a speed of 20 knots They carry 85o tons of coal at normal draught, with storage for 1250 tons. Nine vessels of this class have been built, four of them being sheathed with wood and coppered, the remaining five, including the " Edgar," being unsheathed. The " Powerful " and her sister the " Terrible " are the largest protected cruisers which have been built. They were begun in 1894. They are of steel, sheathed with wood and coppered, are of 14,200 tons displacement, 500 ft. length, 71 ft. beam and 27 ft. mean draught, armed with bow and stern 9.2-in. B.L. chasers, and twelve 6-in. Q.F. guns, of which eight are in 6-in. Harveyized casemates on the main deck and four in similar casemates on the upper deck. They have also eighteen 12-pdr. Q.F. guns, twelve 3-pdrs., nine machine guns and four submerged torpedo tubes. The 9.2-in. guns are protected by a shallow ring of 6-in. Harveyized steel, surmounted by a 6-in. shield enveloping the gun and crew. The ship herself is protected by a complete deck at the water-line level of Harveyized steel plates 3 in. to 6 in. in thickness, and by a double line of coal bunkers above it. The machinery arrangements constitute the striking feature of these ships. They have no less than forty-eight Belleville boilers in eight boiler-rooms, with two sets of triple-expansion 4-cylinder engines, developing 25,000 H.P. with open stokeholds and giving the ships a speed of 22 knots. They carry as a normal supply 1500 tons of coal, and their bunkers will hold 3000 tons. Four 6-inch guns were added on the upper deck of these ships in 1902. The " Diadem " class, launched in 1897 and 1898, were the last first-class protected cruisers added to the British navy. There are eight vessels of this class, but in the four last-built vessels, of which the " Spartiate " was one, some changes were made. The first vessel of the " Diadem " class was begun in 1895, is of 11,000 tons displacement, 435 ft. length, 69 ft. beam, 25 ft. 3 in. mean draught, and is built of steel, sheathed and coppered. Her principal armament consists entirely of 6-in. Q.F. guns, of which. there are sixteen, twelve being protected by 5-in. casemates of Harveyized steel, and the others disposed, two on the forecastle as bow chasers, and two on the quarter-deck as stern chasers, all in separate shields. She also carries thirteen 12-pdrs., eleven smaller guns, including machine guns, and two submerged torpedo tubes. The protection consists of a steel deck, whose slopes are 4 in. thick and horizontal portions 22 in. thick, upon which is stowed the loon tons of coal which the vessel ordinarily carries, the full coal capacity being 2000 tons. She is provided with 30 water-tube boilers of the Belleville type, and her machinery develops 16,500 H.P., giving her a speed of 20.5 knots. The Canadian cruiser Niobe " is one of the first four; in the last four ships the casemates are 6 in. thick and the machinery is of greater power, viz. 18,000 I.H.P., giving a speed of a quarter of a knot higher. Third-class protected cruisers included vessels varying in displacement from 1500 to 3000 tons. With a reduction of displacement come reduction of initial cost and cost of upkeep, a smaller Third-crew, a shorter time for building, and the many advantages class attendant upon reduced size and draught of water. It has cruisers. been found possible to embody in a ship of about 2000 tons displacement many of the most important requirements of a modern cruiser, and a large number of vessels of this class have been added to the fleet. Among these may be mentioned the " Barham," a typical small cruiser, which was built in 1889 of steel, of 183o tons displacement; she is 28o ft. long between perpendiculars, 35 ft. broad and of 12 ft. 8 in. draught of water. As originally completed, this vessel had cylindrical boilers and a H.P. of 4700, giving a speed of 19 knots. In 1898 she and her sister, the " Bellona," were reboilered with water-tube boilers of the Thornycroft type, and with these a H.P. of 600o is obtained, and the vessel reaches a speed of nearly 20 knots. The protection afforded is in the usual form of a protective deck, i in. thick on the flat, and sloping sharply downwards near the water-line, where the thickness is increased to 2 in.; and above this deck the coal stowage is arranged in subdivided bunkers. She carries an armament of six 4.74n. Q.F. guns in shields on the upper deck, four 3-pdrs., two machine guns and two above-water torpedo tubes. She carries 140 tons of coal in her normal condition, and her bunkers will take 250 tons. She has a light fore-and-aft rig. The " Barham " was followed by several vessels of the " Tauranga " class, built for service in Australian waters, and the "Pearl" class for service in other waters, all of 2575 tons displacement, 19 knots speed and carrying eight 4.7-in. and eight 3-pdr. Q.F. guns. In 1896-1898 nine smaller and faster cruisers were laid down, known as the " Pioneer " class, which might be taken to include the " Pelorus " class, the differences between them being small. Of the two classes eleven vessels have been built. The " Pioneer " is 305 ft. long, 36 ft. 9 in. broad, 13 ft. 6 in. mean draught and of 2200 tons displacement. She has water-tube boilers of the small-tube type, 24 and engines of 7000 H.P., giving her a speed of 20 knots. She carries 250 tons of coal at the above displacement, and has stowage for 550 tons. She has eight 4-in. Q.F. guns, eight 3-pdrs., and two above-water torpedo tubes, and a 2-in. protective deck. This type of cruiser reached its final development in the four vessels of the " Diamond " class, of 3000 tons, laid down in 1902–1903, which were the last third-class cruisers designed by Sir William White. Three of the vessels, " Diamond," " Sapphire " and " Topaze," were fitted with reciprocating engines of 9800 I.H.P. for 22 knots, and in the fourth, the "Amethyst," Parsons turbines were fitted. All were 36o ft. long., 40 ft. beam, 14 ft. 6 in. draught, and carried twelve 4-in. and eight 3-pdr. Q.F. guns. On trial the " Topaze " reached a maximum speed of 22.25 knots, while the " Amethyst " obtained 23.63 knots, an advantage of 1.38 knots per hour for the turbine with practically the same coal consumption, and with a distinctly less rate of coal consumption at equal speeds for all speeds above 14 knots. The experiment was regarded as a great success for Parsons turbines, and materially influenced the question of their adoption in succeeding vessels at home and abroad. In 1903 four vessels classed as scouts were laid down, viz., the " Pathfinder," " Patrol," "Sentinel " and " Skirmisher," of about 2900 tons displacement, and 25 knots speed; 370 ft. long, with engines of 17,000 I.H.P., and carrying ten 12-pdr. and eight 3-pdr. Q.F. guns as well as two torpedo tubes. Two others laid down in 1903 were named " Forward " and " Foresight," and carried fourteen 12-pdrs. and two 3-pdrs., and obtained the 25 knots with 15,000 I .H . P. The last two of the series — " Adventure " and "Attentive " (fig.89, Plate XIX.)—of 16,000 I.H.P. and 26 knots, were laid down at Elswick in 1904; they were 374 ft. long, 38 ft. 3 in. beam,i 2 ft. bin. draught, 2670 tons displacement, 16,000 I.H.P., carried ten 12-pdrs. and eight 3-pdrs. Four vessels, named " Boadicea," " Bel-Iona," " Blanche " and " Blonde," were laid down in 1907-1909, of slightly larger dimensions, the " Blonde " being 385 ft. long, 41 ft. 6 in. beam, 13 ft. 6 in. draught, 336o tons displacement, 18,000 I.H.P., 25 knots, and armed with ten 4-in. Q.F. guns and two torpedo tubes. I n 1909 five vessels of 4800 tons displacement, 22,000 I.H.P., 25 knots speed, carrying two 6-in. and ten 4-in. Q.F. guns, with two torpedo tubes, were laid down and known as second-class protected cruisers of the " Bristol " class. They are 430 ft. long, 47 ft. beam, 15 ft. 3 in. draught and protected by a 1-in. steel deck with 2-in. slopes. Fig. 90, Plate XIX., shows the " Newcastle," a vessel of this class built at Elswick. Four other vessels, the " Dartmouth " class, laid down six months later, were very similar, but slightly larger to give one knot more speed. The navy estimates for 1910–1911 provided for laying down five larger vessels of this type. The Australian cruisers " Melbourne " and " Sydney " are of the " Dartmouth " class, while the new Canadian cruisers are of he later type. Between 1870 and 1881, several armoured cruisers were laid down in England and abroad, those in England being the Armoured " Shannon," of 5390 tons and 12 2 knots, laid down in 1873, cruisers. the " Nelson " and " Northampton," of 7630 tons and 13 knots, laid down in 1874, and the " Imperieuse " and " Warspite," laid down in 1881. The two last-named ships were provided with masts and a good spread of sails, and were the last large vessels to be so fitted for the British navy. The sails were not found to be of much service and were removed. These vessels were of 8400 tons displacement, 315 ft. long, and were protected by a partial belt amidships of to-in. compound armour over a length of about 140 ft., with a protective deck above it 11 in. thick and transverse bulkheads at the ends of the belt 9 in. thick, the protective deck from these bulkheads to the ends of the ship being 3 in. thick. They had machinery of 10,000 H.P. and a speed of 16; knots. They carried four 9.2-in. B.L. guns in separate barbettes—one forward, one aft, and one on each beam—besides ten 6-in. guns, twenty-six smaller and machine guns, and six torpedo tubes. They were sheathed with wood and coppered, in order to be able to keep the sea for a long period without docking. The next vessels of the type were the " Orlando " class, begun in 1885. Seven of these were launched in 1886 and 1887. They were much smaller than the " Imperieuse," being only 5600 tons displacement, 300 ft. long and 56 ft. beam, and 22 ft. 6 in. draught. They had a water-line belt of compound armour, to in. thick and nearly 200 ft. long; extending over the top of this, and sloping down forward and aft to the ends of the ship, was a deck 2 in. to 3 in. thick. Their armament consisted of two 9.2 in. B.L. guns—one forward and one aft —instead of the four carried in the " Imperieuse " and " Warspite," but in other respects the same armament as the latter ships. They had engines of 8500 H.P. and a speed of over 18 knots. These vessels were all built from the designs of Sir N. Barnaby. As already stated, between 1885 and 1898 no armoured cruisers were laid down for the British navy. The " Cressy " (fig. 83, Plate XXI.) class, commenced in 1898, consists of six vessels of 12,000 tons displacement, 440 ft. length, 69 ft. 6 in. beam, and 26 ft. 3 in. mean draught. They are built of steel, sheathed and coppered, have a belt of Harveyized steel 11 ft. 6 in. wide, 230 ft. long, and 6 in. thick, with bulkheads 5 in. thick and 2 in. protective plating on the sides from the forward bulkhead to the stem. They carry two 9.2-in. B.L. guns in barbettes and gun-houses 6-in. thick, mounted on the middle line forward and aft, twelve 6-in. Q.F. guns in 6-in. casemates, and twenty-five 12-pdrs. and smaller guns, with two submerged torpedo tubes. Their H.P. is 21,000 with natural draught, steam being supplied by 30 Belleville boilers, and their speed is 21 knots. They carry 800 tons of coal at normal draught, with capacity for 1600 tons. The four vessels of the " Drake " class (see fig 91, Plate XXIV.), wouuimo ^ N I1111d nm-n~n~Ii~n npn'„I romniron imp i muai' gllNs ~I III II 1.114. InIInIAI~IIMO~IIoM~II11InII~nIINnh~IIIII i~~Il~ull~niIIIIIIIiJnlllUnl IIIiIInAIIIInIIIIIIII'' gl"L ..° s n lIu . MIL ~1r a®E~~ C WinlWNWILL 1WiiNUiii i1^11110 iiiinII11MI 11111WIMM11MI njnl bhp„ 9 laid down in 1899, were for several years the largest and fastest armoured cruisers afloat. They are of 14,100 tons displacement, are 500 ft. long, 71 ft. beam, and 26 ft. mean draught. They are unsheathed, are protected by a Krupp steel 6-in, belt extending from barbette to barbette, and from 6 ft. below water to the height of the main deck, completed at the after end by a 5-in. bulkhead, and carried forward to the bow by 2-in. plating extending right up to the upper deck. There are two protective decks, the lower, being 3 in. to 2 in. in thickness, and the main deck, which is 1 in. thick. Their armament consists of two 9.2-in. B.L. guns in barbettes and gun-houses 6 in. thick on the middle line forward and aft as shown in fig. 92, sixteen 6-in. Q.F. guns in 6-in. casemates, fourteen 12-pdrs., twelve smaller and machine guns and two submerged torpedo tubes. Their speed was 23 knots as designed, and all the vessels of the class have attained over 24 knots on service. They have engines of 30,000 H.P., the boilers being of the Belleville type. They carry 1250 tons of coal, with bunker capacity for 2500 tons. A consideration of the above features will illustrate the difficulties of the classification of modern ships. The " Drake " is called an armoured cruiser, but she is superior to the battleships " Renown," " Barfleur," and " Canopus " in armour protection and in her secondary quick-firing armament, as well as in speed and coal endurance, and is somewhat inferior to them only in the number, weight, and protection of primary armament. If 10-in. guns had been given to this vessel in lieu of her 9.2-in., she would probably have been called a first-class battleship, and would have been a 23-knot battleship at that. Each successive increase of size has given the battleship more speed and the armoured cruiser heavier guns and armour, thus tending to merge the two types in one. The next series of armoured cruisers was composed of ships of much less power produced in reply to the fast lightly armed cruisers being built abroad as commerce destroyers, and a considerable number of such vessels so built, although weak compared with the " Drake," were much less costly and at the same time endowed with 24 great sea-keeping power and were superior in all respects to the vessels which caused them to be built. The first set comprised ten vessels of the " Monmouth " class, laid down in 1900 and 1901. Fig. 93 (Plate XXI.) gives a view of the " Cornwall," which may be taken as typical of the class. They are of 980o tons displacement, length 44o ft., beam 66 ft., mean draught 24 ft. 6 in. They are armoured with a belt of 6 in. of Krupp steel over the main part of the length, diminishing in thickness towards the extremities; they carry four-teen 6-in. Q.F. guns, of which ten are in 4-in. casemates, and the others mo"nted in pairs in turrets and gun-houses 4 in. thick, forward and aft; they also carry ten 12-pdr., eleven small and machine guns and two submerged torpedo tubes. Their horse-power is 22,000, giving them a speed of 23 knots. They were followed by six vessels of the " Devonshire " class, laid down in 1902, which were given greater gun power and better armour protection to meet the corresponding advances in foreign vessels. They were of 10,850 tons displacement, 21,000 I.H.P. and 23; knots speed; were armed with four 7.5-in. and six 6-in. Q.F. guns protected by 6-in. armour, and the armour belt was increased fram 4 in. to 6 in. in thickness. These were the last armoured cruisers designed by Sir William White.pairs in four barbette turrets placed as already stated in de-scribing the development of the " Dreadnought" design (see Table XIV. and fig. 96). Thus three pairs of guns can fire directly ahead, three directly astern, and the whole armament can fire on either broadside. In the " Invincible," built at Elswick, all the heavy guns are worked by electric power; in the other vessels they are worked by hydraulic power as usual in H.M. Navy. An anti-torpedo boat armament of sixteen 4-in. guns is provided. The 12-in, guns are protected by 8-in. armour, and a broad belt of side armour is fitted 7 in. thick amidships, and 4 in. forward and aft, associated with thick protective decks. All are fitted with Parsons turbines of 41,000 H.P. and obtained over 27 knots on trial without pressing the boilers. The high steaming power of these ships was shown by the " Indomitable," which conveyed King George V. and Queen Mary (then prince and princess of Wales) to Canada and back in 1908, and steamed. on her return journey across the Atlantic—from Belleisle to the 11155 • ~' emInHANM .nuuHlllf01 Ilkovine. , a 01111s 11:oft ~IAIIWGh$011W.Y;IIIif ~~wit fii IIItIAi lii rnli niA Ilhiilrn)m ROMHUr IIIIIN ,1111111,IIIIgII~IIIUIfiK]dIIIWgIIItuIt11111111111~1171NNlll!IIIIIIiIIIIImIIIII~IIII~IHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII!!IIIPIIIII!IlflUlt llllllfllllllllllllllllllfll1111111111111111111111!IIIIIIIIIIIIII!flI171NIIIiIIIUIIIIIpIIIIINIglllll llllill!IUIIIIIIIIII IIII 'HII MPAWIVI A111MMMMHiHIAAAIHAII11AAf1AHAI1AfIAI11IlA1HAIAHMMMI IIHHIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIAIIHIHHIIIIAHII1111111HIAtII MM11110SII1111MM01HHHIII111M lI1HIA MOlIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIAIIIIAIIIIHIII1111IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIMURMM IHIIIlIlUI INIMUOr t• /2 4' 4" _ e /2' F1c. 96.—Arrangement of Guns and Armour of H.M.S. Invincible." The next armoured cruisers built for the British navy, the six vessels of the " Duke of Edinburgh " type, laid down in 1903-1904, were of much greater power, of 13,S50 tons displacement, 23,500 I.H.P. and 23 knots speed, and have a main armament of six 9.2-in. guns, mounted singly in barbettes. The secondary armament consists of ten 6-in. Q.F. guns in the first two vessels of the class, but in the remaining four vessels the ten 6-in. guns are replaced by four 7.5-in. guns. They also carry from twenty-five to twenty-nine 3-pdrs. and machine guns and three torpedo tubes. The guns and ship's side are protected by 6-in. armour. In 1905 the " Minotaur " class (fig. 94, Plate XXI.) was laid down, consisting of three vessels of 14,600 tons displacement, 27,000 I.H.P. and 23 knots speed, carrying an armament of four 9.2-in. guns mounted in pairs in 7-in. barbettes forward and aft, and ten 7.5-in. guns all on the upper deck in shallow barbettes of 6-in. armour, with 6 in. enclosed shields. The belt armour is 6 in. thick amidships, tapering to 4 in. forward and 3 in. aft. These vessels are 490 ft. long, 741 and 751 ft. beam, 25 to 26 ft. mean draught, and are the last large cruisers to be propelled by reciprocating engines, or to be armed with 9.2-in. guns. They carry loon tons of coal on the load draught, and can stow 2000 tons of coal besides 700 tons of oil fuel. The next cruisers to be built were the "Invincibles," which might have been classed as battleships on account of their heavy armament and substantial armour protection; the Dread- former greatly exceeding in power the armament of Fastnet—at an average speed of 25.13 knots, a record speed at the time for a transatlantic voyage. It is interesting to compare the " Indomitable's " performance on the voyage referred to above with that of the " Hero "—a screw line-of-battle ship of 91 guns and 600 nominal horse-power, when employed on a similar errand. This ship was considered a crack ship of her class in 186o, and in that year was selected to convey King Edward VII. (then prince of Wales) on a visit to Canada; she made the passage from Plymouth to St John's in 13 days under steam and sail, and this was considered an exceedingly good performance for a line-of-battle ship in those days. In 1909 the " Indefatigable " of 18,75o tons displacement was laid down at Devonport; she is very similar to the " Invincible," with the same armament and certain minor improvements. She was followed'in 1910 by the " Lion " at Devonport and " Princess Royal "'at Barrow, each 66o ft. long, 88 ft. 6 in. beam, and of 24,35o,tons displacement on a draught of 28 ft. Parsons turbines of 70,000 H.P. are provided to give a sea speed of 28 knots. Table XVII. contains further particulars of the British " Invincibles," from which it maybe seen that the Australian cruisers " Australia " and " New Zealand " are similar to the " Indefatigable." With regard to cruisers of other navies than the British, it may be said that the vessels constructed at Elswick exercised considerable influence in their development as well as of those of the British navy. The "Esmeralda" (fig. 82, Plate XXI I I.) of 1883, built for the Chilean government, but bought by Japan in 1895 and re-named " Idzumi," was of 2950 tons displacement, had 6000 H.P. and 18.3 knots speed, was protected by a complete 1-in. steel deck, and carried the very heavy armament of two 10-in. B.L. guns, six 6-in. Q.F., two 6-pdrs., seven smaller guns and three torpedo tubes. The Piemonte " (fig. 97, Plate XXIV.), built for the Italian navy in 1888, had a displacement of only 2640 tons, but was of 13,000 H.P. and had a speed of nearly 221 knots. She was protected by a steel deck of 3 in. maximum thickness, and carried six 6-in. Q.F., six 4.7-in. Q.F., ten 6-pdrs., eleven smaller -by and three torpedo tubes, an armament which, as pointed out by Lord Armstrong, was capable of discharging in a given time twice the weight of shot and shell that could be fired by the largest war vessel then afloat. The " Buenos nought wisera. any battleship before the " Lord Nelson," and the crulser latter exceeding that provided in any armoured cruisers. Their most striking feature, however, is their great speed, previously only reached by torpedo boats and torpedo boat destroyers, in which everything was sacrificed to obtain the highest possible speed. They were named " Invincible " (fig. 95, Plate XXI.), " Indomitable " and " Inflexible," and were laid down in 1906 at the yards of the Elswick, Fairfield and Clyde-bank Companies respectively. Their dimensions were:-length 530 ft., breadth 78 ft. 6 in., draught 26 ft., displacement 17,250 tons. They were armed with eight 12-in. guns mounted in .a Hull. Machinery. ,; Armament c7 d Vessel. a v ° (including u a C a, c v so A machine > 3 0 g,c l v "a v fl o b c c Engines. Boilers. guns). 9 u `T A ,- A alp A o ( F u Ft. Ft. Ft. Tons. Knots. £ Invincible 1997 Steel. 530'0 78'5 26'0 17,250 20'5 41,990 4 Turbines. Yarrow 8—12' 16—4" 5m. Barbettes 7' 1,678,995 Inflexible 1907 „ 530'0 78'5 26'0 17,250 25'0 41,000 4 8—12” 16—4' 5m. „ 7' 1,638,229 Indomitable . 1907 „ 530'0 78'5 26'0 17,250 25'0 41,000 4 „ Babcock & Wilcox 8—12” 16—4” 5m. 7' 1,671,880 Indefatigable . 1909 „ 5550 80'0 26'5 18,750 25'0 43.000 4 ,, ,, „ 8—12” 16—4” 5m. 1,449,826 Australia . 1909 „ 5550 8o-0 26'5 18,750 25'0 43,000 .1 ,, „ 8—12' 16—4' 5m. „ 7' 1,449,826 New Zealand . 1909 „ 555'0 80'0 26'5 18,750 I 25'0 43,000 4 ,, 8—12” 16—4' 5m. „ 7' 1,449,826 Lion 1910 „ 660'0 885 28'0 26,350 28'0 70,000 4 „ Yarrow . Princess Royal 660'0 885 28'0 26,350 28.0 70,000 4 —I .. ' ,, .. .. Aires,” built in 1895 for the Argentine Republic, is 396 ft. in length and of 4800 tons displacement, her machinery developing 13,300 H.P. with open stokeholds, and giving her a speed of 23.2 knots. She is protected by a complete deck 11 in. to 3 in. thick, and carries a powerful armament of quick-firing guns, consisting of two 8-in., four 6-in., six 4.7-in., twenty-two smaller guns and five torpedo tubes. Her normal coal supply is 350 tons, a.nd she can stow moo tons in her bunkers. Rather smaller than the " Buenos Aires,” but of still later build (1901), is the Chilean cruiser " Chacabuco (fig. 98, Plate XV.). She is a characteristic Elswick cruiser in design and general appearance, being heavily armed, fast and of moderate displacement. Her dimensions are: displacement 4500 tons, length 36o ft., breadth 46 ft. and draught 18 ft. She carries an armament of two 8-in. Q.F. guns, mounted on the middle line forward and aft, and protected by well-armoured gun-houses, ten 4.7-in. Q.F. guns in shields on the broadsides and nineteen smaller guns, including machine-guns. She is protected by a strong armoured deck 1I in. thick on the flat to 41 in. on the slopes, and by the moo tons of coal which forms her normal supply. Her engines develop nearly 16,000 H.P., and her speed is 23 knots. In the matter of armoured cruisers also Elswick has taken a leading place—among the cruisers built by this firm being the " Esmeralda " (second), of 7000 tons, in 1895 for Chile; the " O'Higgins,” of 8500 tons, in 1896 for the same state; the " Asama and " Tokiwa,” of 9700 tons, in 1897 for Japan; and the " Idzumo and " Iwate,” in 1899, also for Japan. The " Idzumo " (fig. 99, Plate XXIII.) is 9750 tons displacement, 400 ft. long, 68 ft. 6 in. beam, 24 ft. 3 in. draught. She has 16,000 H.P. and a speed of 22 knots; is protected by a complete belt of Krupp steel 7 in. thick, tapering to 31 in. at the ends, a 21-in. steel deck with a citadel above it 5 in. thick, and carries an armament of four 8-in. Q.F., fourteen 6-in. Q.F., twelve 12-pdrs., seven smaller guns and four torpedo tubes. The 8-in. guns are in pairs in 6-in. barbettes and hoods, while of the 6-in. guns ten are in 6-in. casemates and four in shields. She carries, with bunkers full, 1300 tons of coal. United States.—In the United States T vy.,the proportion of " protected " cruisers is smaller than in the British navy, as the " armoured " type established itself at an earlier date. The " Philadelphia,” begun in 1888, may be taken as an example of the U.S. protected cruiser. She is 4345 tons in displacement and 327 ft. long, has twin screws and a horse-power of 8800, giving her a speed of 19.6 knots. She is protected by a steel deck 21 in. to 4 in. thick, and carries twelve 6-in. B.L. guns (later converted to Q.F.), seven-teen smaller guns and five torpedo tubes. The " Columbia " and " Minneapolis " are very fast armoured cruisers laid down in 1891. On a displacement of 7350 tons they carry one 8-in., two 6-in., eight 4-in. and twelve 6-pdr. and a number of smaller guns. They are protected by heavy steel decks and thin side armour. The " Columbia " developed 18,500 I.H.P. and 22.8 knots on trial, while the " Minneapolis " reached 20,860 I.H.P. and 23 knots; these powers and speeds were at that date the highest recorded for such vessels. The " Columbia " crossed the Atlantic at 18.4 knots in 1895, but the type has not been repeated in America although followed for a little while by France. The " Brooklyn " (fig. 84, Plate XXII.), begun in 1893, is of the " armoured " type. She is of 9215 tons displacement and 400 ft. long, has twin screws and develops 16,000 horse-power with forced draught, giving a speed of 21 knots. She is protected by a steel belt for two-thirds of her length 8 ft. broad and 8 in. to 3 in. thick, and a complete steel deck 6 in. to 3 in. thick. She carries eight 8-in. B.L. guns in pairs in 15-in. barbettes—disposed one forward, one aft and one on each beam—twelve 5-in. Q.F. guns in 4-in. shields, twenty smaller guns and five torpedo tubes. Her normal coal stowage is 900 tons, and she can stow 1650 tons in her coal spaces. In 1903–1904 there were launched six armoured cruisers of the " California " class, of 13,700 tons, and in 1904–1905 three of the " St Louis " class, of 9700 tons. The former are vessels 502 ft. in length, 70 ft. beam and 26 ft. 6 in. draught, have machinery developing 23,000 indicated horse-power, and a speed of 22 knots. The latter are 424 ft. in length, 66 ft. beam and 23 ft. 6 in. draught, with engines of 21,000 indicated horse-power, and the same estimatedspeed, namely, 22 knots. Both classes have fourteen 6-in. Q.F. guns, but the larger vessels have in addition four 8-in. guns in two 61-in. turrets, besides a heavier battery of smaller Q.F. guns. The " California " class are completely belted with armour having a thickness of 6 in. over half the length amidships and 31 in. to the ends, and a battery of 5-in. armour enclosing the 6-in. Q.F. guns, and extending to the upper deck. The " St Louis " class have only a water-line belt for about one-half the vessel's length, with a similar battery above it, the whole of the armour being 4 in. thick of Krupp quality. The California " class comes between the English ' Cressy " and " Drake " classes. The " St Louis " class is practically the English Monmouth,” with about a knot less speed, bow-plating omitted and a 4-in. battery added. In 1903 two larger armoured cruisers, the Tennessee " and " Washington," were laid down. The speed of 22 knots was retained, but the armament consisted of four Io-in., sixteen 6-in., twenty-two 14-pdrs., twelve 3-pdrs., &c., with four submerged torpedo tubes. The side armour was slightly reduced in thickness, but spread over a greater area, giving 5 in. uniformly on the belt and 3 in. forward and aft; the citadel and casemates remain 5 in. thick, but the protection of the heavy guns is increased to 9 in.; in addition, the 14-pdr. battery on the upper deck is protected by 2-in. plating. The displacement is 14,500 tons. Two similar vessels, " North Carolina " and " Montana," were laid down in 1905, but up to 1910 the United States had not proposed to lay 'down any cruisers corresponding in power and speed to the " Invincible." Germany.—Germany for many years built a number of small cruisers of moderate speed for service on distant stations, &c., and subsequently a series of very successful third-class and second-class cruisers of increasing power and speed. Seven vessels of the " Gazelle " class were launched in 1898–1900. The " Gazelle " was of 2558 tons, 6370 I.H.P. and 191 knots speed; the " Niobe," a sister vessel, was of the same displacement, and the five later vessels were of 2608 tons; several developed nearly 9000 I.H.P. and obtained 211 to 221 knots speed. The " Undine," "Arcona " and " Frauenlob," laid down in 1901, were of 2656 tons displacement; these were all sheathed with wood and coppered. Seven vessels of the " Hamburg " class were laid down in 1902–1904, of 3200 tons displacement, having the same protection as the preceding vessels and carrying the same armament at a higher speed, machinery of io,000 I.H.P. being provided for 22 knots. The highest speed reached was 22.6 knots by the " Lubeck," which was fitted with Parsons turbines of 13,500 H.P. and driven by eight screws on four shafts. Four vessels of the " Konigsberg " class, laid down in 1905, are of 3350 to 3500 tons displacement. They retain the same protection—a deck •8 in. to 2 in. in thickness and the same armament—ten 4'i-in., fourteen smaller guns and two submerged torpedo tubes; but their machinery has been varied to admit of trial of various types of turbines and reciprocating engines. The " Konigsberg," " Stuttgart " and " Nurnberg " are fitted with engines of 13,200 I.H.P. for 23.5 knots; while the " Stettin " is fitted with Parsons turbines of 15,500 H.P., and attained 24.0 knots on trial. The next two vessels, " Dresden " and " Emden," of 3592 tons, laid down in 1906, have the same protection as before, but twelve 4.1-in. guns are carried instead of ten, and a still higher speed is aimed at. The " Dresden is fitted with Parsons turbines of 16,000 H.P., and the " Emden," with reciprocating engines of 15,000 I.H.P., to give a speed of 25 knots. Four later vessels are of 4230 to 4280 tons displacement, and are fitted with machinery of about 25,000 H.P. for a speed of 25 knots, as follows: the " Kolberg " with Schichau turbines, the " Mainz " with A.E.G. (modified Curtis) turbines, the Coln " with Zoelly turbines and the " Augsburg " with Parsons turbines. Two vessels of the same type were in 1910 under construction, in which a further increase of speed was contemplated; the displacement is increased to 4800 tons and the H.P. to 30,000; one of these, the vessel to replace " Bussard," was to have Schulz turbines. Thus in these second-class cruisers Germany was carrying out the greatest series of experiments on turbines which had been attempted, no less than five different types of large power being tested in comparison with reciprocating engines. Besides the foregoing very fast vessels, in 1897–1898 Germany built five larger second-class cruisers of the " Hertha " class. They were lofty vessels, and carried a good armament of two 8.2-in., eight 5.9-in. and ten 3.4-in. guns, as well as other smaller guns and three submerged torpedo tubes; they were 344 ft. long, 56 ft. to 58 ft. beam, 21 to 22 ft. mean draught, 5575 to 5790 tons displacement; they had a protective deck 1.6 to 3.9 in. in thickness, and 3.9 in. gun houses. Fig. too (Plate XXII.) shows the " Victoria Luise," the second vessel of the class. The older German cruisers, " Furst Bismarck " and " Prinz Heinrich," laid down in 1896-1898, were armed with 9.4-in. and 5.9-in. guns, and had speeds of 19—20 knots. The " Prinz Adalbert " and " Friedrich Karl," laid down in 1901, and " Yorck " and " Roon," laid down in 1902–1903, were of 885o to 9350 tons displacement and 21 knots speed, carrying four 8.2-in., ten 5.9-in., twelve 3.4-in. guns and four submerged torpedo tubes. The 8.2-in, guns were carried in enclosed 6-in. shields forward and aft ; and the other guns were mostly in a very short citadel amidships, protected by 4-in. armour; the water-line being completely protected by 4-in. to 3-in. armour. The latest vessels of this type, the " Gneisenau " and " Scharnhorst," were laid down in 1905–1906 of 11,420 tons displacement and 222 knots speed. In 1907 Germany commenced a new series of large and powerful cruisers, the " Blucher " (fig. lot, Plate XXII.), the first of the series, being of 15,550 tons displacement, an increase of more than 4000 tons beyond that of the preceding German vessels. She carries twelve 8.2-in., eight 5.9-in., sixteen smaller guns and four submerged torpedo tubes, and is protected by 7-in. armour. Engines of 32,000 I.H.P. were provided, and the maximum speed on trial exceeded 25 knots. In the second vessel, the " Von der Tann " (fig. 102, Plate XXII.), the main armament was increased to eight 11-in. guns; she is 56o ft. in length, 85 ft. beam, 27 ft. draught and 18,700 tons displacement; Parsons turbines of 45,000 H.P. were provided for 25 knots speed, and both power and speed were exceeded on trial. The third vessel, the " Moltke," is of 23,000 tons displacement, of 26 knots speed, and is armed with 12-inch in place of 11-inch guns, and cost 2,200,000. France.—In France the line of development of the cruiser has been similar to that in Great Britain. In 1887 four third-class cruisers were built, of which the " Forbin " may be taken as a type; she was 312 ft. long, 302 ft. beam, 16 ft. draught, 1935 tons displacement, 5800 I.H.P. and 20 knots speed, protected by a 14-in. deck and a belt of cellulose, and armed with four 52-in. and eight 3-pdr. guns and five torpedo tubes. These were followed by " Linois," " Galilee," Lavoisier," of about 2300 tons in 1893, and the " d'Estrees " and Infernet " in 1897. The latter were 312 ft. long, 39 ft. beam, 17 ft. 9 in. draught and 2420 tons displacement, sheathed and coppered, protected by a 12-in. deck and armed with two 5.5-in., four 3.9-in. and eight 3-pdr. guns and three torpedo tubes; 850o I.H.P. was provided for 21 knots speed. The French second-class cruisers may be said to have commenced with the " Davout," of 3027 tons, 9000 I.H.P. and 202 knots, and the " Alger " and " Isly," of 4350 tons, 8000 I.H.P. and 19 knots, in 1887. They were followed by two of the " Friant " class in 1891, two of the " Pascal " class and three of the " Cassard " class in 1893, and the sheathed vessels, " Catinat " and " Protet," in 1894 and 1895. These vessels were from 3700 to 4050 tons displacement, and 192 to 20 knots speed, protected by decks 1; in. to 3 in. in thickness, and armed with four to six 6.5-in. guns, four to ten 3.9-in. guns, as well as smaller guns and torpedo tubes. The last of this series, the " Protet," was laid down in 1895. In 1894 France laid down a first-class protected cruiser, the " d'Entrecasteaux," of 800o tons, carrying two 9.4-in., twelve 5.5-in., twelve 3-pdr. guns and six torpedo tubes, with a speed of 192 knots, and then by three very remarkable vessels lightly built and armed, but of very high speed, viz. the " Jurien de la Graviere," of 560o tons and 23 knots, the " Guichen," of 815o tons.and 23 knots and we" Chateaurenault," of 7900 tons and 24 knots. A new departure was made in 1890 in laying down the armoured cruiser " Dupuy de Lome," of 630o tons, 14,000 I.H.P. and 20 knots speed, carrying two 7.6-in., six 6.4-in. and several smaller guns; a protective deck 12 in. thick was fitted, and the whole side of the ship was armoured, the thickness at the water-line amidships being 4.7 in., tapering gradually towards the extremities. This type has, however, not been repeated. The " Jeanne d'Arc," launched in 1899 at'Toulon, is 11,100 tons displacement, 477 ft. in length, 63 ft. 8 in. beam and 24 ft. 8 in. mean draught, has engines of 33,000 indicated horse-power and a speed of 21.8 knots. She has a complete water-line armour belt of Harveyized steel, having a maximum thickness of 6 in., and the bow is also protected as far aft as the bow guns with 12 in. steel to the upper deck. Her armament consists of two 7.6-in, guns, fourteen 5.5-in. Q.F., twenty-two smaller guns and two submerged torpedo tubes. Of more recent date than the " Jeanne d'Arc," but smaller in size, is the " Montcalm " (fig. 103, Plate XXIII.), an armoured cruiser launched in 1900, of 9367 tons displacement, 453 ft. length, 63 ft. 8 in. beam and 24 ft. 6 in. draught. She carries an armament of two 7.6-in. guns in separate turrets of Harveyized steel 6 in. thick forward and aft, eight 6.5-in. Q.F. guns in casemates on the broadsides, four 3.9-in. Q.F. guns in shields on the broadsides, twenty-two smaller guns and two submerged torpedo tubes. She is protected by a water-line belt 62 ft. deep, which extends fromthe bow to within 30 ft. of the stern, where is terminated by a transverse bulkhead 4 in. thick; amidship this belt is 6 in. thick at its upper edge, diminishing to 2 in. at its lower edge, where it meets the 2-in. protective deck, but the maximum thickness tapers to 3 in. at the forward and after ends. Above this main belt is a thinner one extending over the same length, but only 34 in. maximum thickness and of about 4 ft. depth. The " Montcalm " has 20 water-tube boilers of the Normand-Sigaudy type, and engines of 19,600 H.P., giving her a speed of 21 knots. She carries woo tons of coal and some oil fuel. Her engine-rooms are placed between the two sets of boiler-rooms, instead of abaft them, as is usual in British vessels, the peculiar appearance of many French vessels, with two pairs of funnels widely separated, being thus accounted for. Three vessels of the " Montcalm " class were ordered, and then three smaller vessels of " Kleber " type, of 7578 tons only, and four larger vessels of improved " Montcalm " type. The latter were very similar to " Montcalm," with improved armour protection and of 500 tons greater displacement. They were followed by three larger vessels, the " Leon Gambetta " (fig. 104, Plate XXIII.), " Jules Ferry " and " Victor Hugo." These vessels are armoured cruisers of about 12,400 tons displacement, length 48o ft., beam 70 ft. 3 in., draught 26 ft. 3 in., with an indicated horse-power of 28,500 and speeds of 222 to 23 knots. In 1904 the " Jules Michelet " (figg 105, Plate XXIV.), of 12, 70 tons, was laid down, of 30,000 I.H.P. and 23 knots speed. The " Ernest Renan " followed in 1903, the I.H.P. being 36,000 for 231 knots. The most powerful French cruisers built or building in 1910 were the " Edgar Quinet," laid down in 1905, and " Waldeck Rousseau," laid down in 1906, of 13,780 tons displacement, armed with four-teen 7.6-in. guns, eight being fitted in pairs in turrets and four in separate casemates, together with fourteen 6-pdr. and eight 3-pdr. guns and two submerged torpedo tubes; 36,000 I.H.P. is provided for a designed speed of 24 knots. Japan.—Japan possesses a great variety of cruisers, many of which were built at Elswick, others were captured during the war with Russia, and refitted or reconstructed ; the latter including the " Aso " (ex-" Bayan "), the " Tsugaru " (ex-" Pallada"), the " Soya" (ex-" Varyag ") and "Sudzua " (ex-" Novik "). In addition, large and small cruisers were built in America, Germany and France, but the finest were built in Japan. As examples of the Japanese cruisers laid down towards the end of the 19th century may be mentioned the second-class cruisers Kasagi " and " Chitose," of 4800 and 4900 tons displacement, 15,500 I.H.P. and 224 knots speed, built in America and armed with two 8-in. and ten 4.7-in guns, and the third-class cruisers " Suma " and " Akashi," of 2657 tons displacement and 192 knots speed, built in Japan and armed with two 6-in., six 4.7-in. and ten 3-pdr. Q.F. guns. In 1902 Japan launched the protected cruisers " Tsushima " and Niitaka," of 3365 tons displacement, 9400 I.H.P. and 20 knots speed, armed with six and fourteen smaller guns; in 1903 the Otowa," of 3082 tons, 10,000 I.H P. and 21 knots carrying two 6-in , six 4.7-in: and six smaller guns; and in 1907 the " Tone," of 4100 tons displacement, 15,000 I.H.P. and 23 knots speed, armed with two 6 in., ten 4.7 in. and three smaller guns and three torpedo tubes. All of these vessels are fitted with reciprocating machinery. The " Yahagi," " Chikuma ," and " Hirato," laid down later, have turbine machinery of 22,500 H.P. to give 26 knots speed, two 6-in, and ten 4.7-in. guns and two torpedo tubes. They are 440 ft. long, 52 ft. beam and 5000 tons displacement. Of first-class protected cruisers Japan possessed in 1910 only two, the " Tsugaru " (ex-" Pallada ") and " Soya " (ex-" Varyag "). The " Tsugaru " was built at St Petersburg in 1899, is of 663o tons, 11,600 I.H.P., 20 knots speed, armed with eight 6-in., twenty-two 12-pdr. and several smaller guns, and protected by an armour deck 14 to 22 in. in thickness. The " Soya '' was built at Philadelphia in 1899, is of 6500 tons, 20,000 I.H.P., 23 knots speed, armed with twelve 6-in., twelve 12-pdr. and smaller guns, and protected by a 12 to 3-in. deck. The " Sudzua " (ex-`" Novik ") is a lighter and faster vessel, of 3000 tons displacement, 25 knots speed, armed with two 6-in., four 4.7-in. and several smaller guns, and protected by a 1.2 to 2-in. deck. Of armoured cruisers she possessed in 1910 a relatively large number. In 1897 Japan ordered the " Yakumo," of 9850 tons displacement, from Germany, and in 1899 the " Adzuma," of 9436 tons displacement, from France; both vessels have a speed of 21 knots, and carry an armament of four 8-in. guns mounted in pairs in two turrets, and twelve 6-in. guns in 6-in. casemates, and are protected by a complete belt of Krupp steel 7 in. to 31 in. in thickness. They are somewhat similar to the " Iwate " and" Idzumo " (fig. 99, Plate XXIII.), built at Elswick, but with slightly less gun power and speed. The " Aso " (ex-" Bayan "), built in France in 1900, is 7700 tons displacement, 17,000 I.H.P., 21 knots, carrying two 8-in., eight 6-in. and a number of smaller guns, and protected by 8-in. armour. In 1905 a very important advance was made. Early in that year Japan laid down the " Ikoma " and " Tskuba," 440 ft. in length, 13,750 tons displacement, 23,000 I.H.P. and of 21 knots speed. These were the first cruisers laid down to carry the guns of 'a first-class battleship. Their armament includes four 12-in. guns mounted in pairs in two barbettes, one forward and one aft, twelve 6-in. guns in casemates and twelve 4.7-in. guns, and they have a complete armour belt 7 to 5 in. in thickness and 7 in. of armour on the barbettes (fig. 106). They were followed by the 22-knot cruisers " Kurama," laid down in 1905, and the " Ibuki," laid down in 1906, which are 10 ft. longer, of about 90o tons greater displacement, and 4500 more I.H.P. 1177 !IRI011ll X1116 Shirr Alowmew mommi !lsurNa
End of Article: WAR
WAQIDI [Abu `Abdallah Mahommed ibn `Umar ul-Wagidi]...
WAR (O. Eng. werre, Fr. guerre, of Teutonic origin;...

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